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bai'hua'she (SNACK)-白花蛇

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Jinqianbaihuashe ( Bungarus MUlticinctus Blyth)---三种蛇
 
Jinqianbaihuashe--- The source is from the young body of Bungarus multicinctus Blyth, family cora. It is caught in the summer and autumn and viscerated. And then it is soaked in alcohol, coiled up and fixed to dry by bamboo slips. It is similar to qishe in properties, actions and application but it has more violent actions. For decoction 3-4.5g or 1-1.5g in powder is for oral use.

Wu shao she--- The source is from the body of Zaocys dhumnades ( Cantor) , family Megapodiidae. It is caught in the summer and autumn and viscerated or with skin removed and dried, being cut into pieces with head annd scales removed. It can be used as the crude one, or stir-baked with wine, or covered by millet wine with skin and bone removed. It is sweet and neutral and is related to the liver meridian. It has actions of expelling wind, unblocking collateral and stopping spasms similar to but inferior to Qishe. 9-12g in decoction, or 2-3g in powder once, or added to pill, or soaked in wine.The appropriate amount is for external use.

Qi she ( Long-noded Pit Viper/ Agkistrodon )

The source is from the viscerated and dried body of Agkistrodon acutus ( Guenther), family Grotalidae. It is caught in summer and autumn. The body is viscerated and dried with head and scales removed. The crude one is used, or prepared with millet wine, or stir-baked with wine, being cut into pieces for use.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Sweet, salty, warm, toxic; relate to the liver meridian.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Expel wind, unblock collateral and stop spasms.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-9g. 1-1.5g in the powder each time and twice or three times a day. Soaked in the wine, decocted into plaster or added into pill or powder.

[ Precautions ]: Contraindicated in yin deficiency with internal heat.
 
[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Obstinate Bi-syndrome of wind-dampness and hemiplegia due to stroke     It is used together with Fangfeng, Qianghuo and Danggui, etc., such as in Baihuashe Medicicated Wine.
 
2.Infantile convulsion and tetanus     For acute and chronic infantile convulsion and spasm of tetanus, it is usually used together with Wushaoshe and Wugong, etc,.such as in Dingming Powder.
 
3. Leprosy and scab   For leprosy, it is used together with Dahuang, Chantui and Zaojiaoci, etc.; for scab, it is used together with Jingjie, Bohe and Tianma,etc.
 
In addition, it can treat toxin by its toxin. It can be used to treat scrofula, syphilis and malignant sore.

[ Comparison ]: Both Qishe and Wushaoshe have actions of expelling wind, unblocking collateral and stop spasms and they are suitable for wind-toxin stagnating syndrome lasting long with veil locating deep .Qishe is warm and dry in nature and extremely toxic. It has violent actions superior to Wushaoshe.

附药 金钱白花蛇        为眼镜蛇科动物银环蛇Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus Blyth的幼蛇干燥体。分布于长江以南各地。夏、秋二季捕捉,剖开蛇腹,除去内脏,干燥。切段用。性能、功效、应用与蕲蛇相似而力较强。煎服,3~4.5g;研粉吞服1~1.5g。       
 
乌梢蛇为游蛇科动物乌梢蛇Zaocys dhumnades(Cantor)的干燥体。全国大部分地区有分布。多于夏、秋二季捕捉,剖开蛇腹或先剥去蛇皮留头尾,除去内脏,干燥。去头及鳞片,切段生用、酒炙,或黄酒闷透,去皮骨用。
      
【药性】甘,平。归肝经。        【功效】袪风,通络,止痉。       
 
【应用】        1.风湿顽痹,中风半身不遂。本品性走窜,能搜风邪,透关节,通经络,常用于风湿痹证及中风半身不遂,尤宜于风湿顽痹,日久不愈者。常配全蝎、天南星、防风等,治风痹,手足缓弱,麻木拘挛,不能伸举,如乌蛇丸(《圣惠方》);或制酒饮,以治顽痹瘫缓,挛急疼痛,如乌蛇酒(《本草纲目》)。治中风,口眼喎斜,半身不遂,宜配通络、活血之品。        2.小儿惊风,破伤风。本品能入肝袪风以定惊搐,治小儿急慢惊风,可与麝香、皂荚等同用,如乌蛇散(《卫生家宝》);治破伤风之抽搐痉挛,多与蕲蛇、蜈蚣配伍,如定命散(《圣济总录》)。        3.麻风,疥癣。本品善行袪风而能止痒,配白附子、大风子、白芷等,以治麻风,如乌蛇丸(《秘传大麻风方》);配枳壳、荷叶,可治干湿癣证,如三味乌蛇散(《圣济总录》)。        此外,本品又可治瘰疬、恶疮。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,9~12g;研末,每次2~3g;或入丸剂、酒浸服。外用,适量。        【使用注意】血虚生风者慎服。       
 
【鉴别用药】蕲蛇、金钱白花蛇、乌梢蛇性皆走窜,均能袪风,通络,止痉,凡内外风毒壅滞之证皆宜,尤以善治病久邪深者为其特点。其作用以金钱白花蛇最强,蕲蛇次之,乌梢蛇最弱;且金钱白花蛇与蕲蛇均有毒性偏温燥,而乌梢蛇性平无毒力较缓。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《开宝本草》:“主诸风瘙瘾疹,疥癣,皮肤不仁,顽痹。”        2.《本草纲目》:“功与白花蛇(即蕲蛇)同而性善无毒。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含赖氨酸、亮氨酸、谷氨酸、丙氨酸、胱氨酸等17种氨基酸,并含果糖-1,6-二磷酸酶,原肌球蛋白等。        2.药理作用:乌梢蛇水煎液和醇提取液有抗炎、镇静、镇痛作用。其血清有对抗五步蛇毒作用。        3.临床研究:乌梢蛇治风寒湿所致关节、肌肉疼痛效果良好。另用乌梢蛇制成止敏片(每片重0.3g)治疗各型荨麻疹41例,慢性荨麻疹每次5~8片,其他类型荨麻疹每次5片,有效率80.5%;治疗湿疹、皮炎、皮肤瘙痒症、结节性痒疹及多形性红斑47例,基本治愈19例,显著进步21例(中医杂志,1980,3:196)        附药 蛇蜕        为游蛇科动物王锦蛇Elaphe carinata (Guenther)、红点锦蛇E.rufodorsata (Cantor)和黑眉锦蛇E.taeniurus Cope等多种蛇脱下的皮膜。全国各地均产。全年均可收集,去净泥沙,晾干。性味甘、咸,平。归肝经。功能祛风,定惊,退翳,解毒止痒。适用于惊风癫痫,翳障,喉痹,口疮,痈疽疔毒,瘰疬,皮肤瘙痒,白癜风等。煎汤,1.5~3g;研末,每次0.3~0.6g。外用适量。孕妇忌服。   
 
   蕲蛇为蝰科动物五步蛇Agkistrodon acutus (Güenther)的干燥体。主产于湖北、江西、浙江等地。多于夏、秋二季捕捉,剖开蛇腹,除去内脏,洗净,干燥。去头、鳞,切段生用、酒炙,或黄酒润透,去鳞、骨用。
      
【药性】甘、咸,温。有毒。归肝经。        【功效】袪风,通络,止痉。       
 
【应用】        1.风湿顽痹,中风半身不遂。本品具走窜之性,性温通络,能内走脏腑,外达肌表而透骨搜风,以袪内外之风邪,为截风要药,又能通经络,凡风湿痹证无不宜之,尤善治病深日久之风湿顽痹,经络不通,麻木拘挛,以及中风口眼喎斜,半身不遂者,常与防风、羌活、当归等配伍,如白花蛇酒(《濒湖集简方》)。        2.小儿惊风,破伤风。本品入肝,既能祛外风,又能息内风,风去则惊搐自定,为治抽搐痉挛常用药。治小儿急慢惊风、破伤风之抽搐痉挛,多与乌梢蛇、蜈蚣同用,如定命散(《圣济总录》)。        3.麻风,疥癣。本品能外走肌表而袪风止痒,兼以毒攻毒,故风毒之邪壅于肌肤亦为常用之品。治麻风,每与大黄、蝉蜕、皂角刺等相配,如追风散(《秘传大麻风方》);治疥癣,可与荆芥、薄荷、天麻同用,如驱风膏,(《医垒元戎》)。        此外,本品有毒,能以毒攻毒,可治瘰疬、梅毒、恶疮。       
 
【用法用量】煎汤,3~9g;研末吞服,一次1~1.5g,一日2~3次。或酒浸、熬膏、入丸、散服。     【使用注意】阴虚内热者忌服。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《雷公炮炙论》:“治风。引药至于有风疾处。”        2.《开宝本草》:“主中风湿痹不仁,筋脉拘急,口面喎斜,半身不遂,骨节疼痛,大风疥癞及暴风瘙痒,脚弱不能久立。”        3.《本草纲目》:“能透骨搜风,截惊定搐,为风痹、惊搐、癞癣、恶疮要药,取其内走脏腑,外彻皮肤,无处不到也。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含3种毒蛋白:AaT-Ⅰ、AaT-Ⅱ、AaT-Ⅲ,由18种氨基酸组成。并含透明质酸酶,出血毒素等。        2.药理作用:蕲蛇有镇静、催眠及镇痛作用;注射液有显著降压作用;水提物能激活纤溶系统;醇提物可增强巨噬细胞吞噬能力,显著增加炭粒廓清率。        3.临床研究:用蛇蝎散(蕲蛇、全蝎、蜈蚣等份,研末)每天3g,治疗坐骨神经痛52例,治愈42例,好转6例(浙江中医杂志,1982,6:273)。        4.不良反应:有蕲蛇制剂引起过敏反应的报道。
 

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