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Baishao (White Peony Root)---白芍(powder100g/bottle)

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Product Description

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This medicinal is the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall.(Fam.Ranunculaceae). The root is excavated in summer or autumn and washed clean. After removal of the rootlets and skin, it is steeped in boiling water or slightly boiled till it is heated equally and then dried by natural sunlight. It is sliced after maceration, and used in its unprepared form, stir-baked with or without wine.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter, sour, slightly cold; relate to liver and spleen meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Nourish blood and regulate menstruatin, suppress liver to relieve pain, astringe yin to arrest sweating.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Irregular menstruation    It treats irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis, due to deficiency of liver blood, in combination with Shudihuang and Danggui, as in the Siwu Decoction. It also treats irregular menstruation due to blood deficiency with internal heat, in combination with Huangqin and Huangbo.

2. Pain in the hypochondrium, stomach and abdomen, or spasm and pain in the extremities     For pain in the hypochondirum due to blood deficiency with liver depression, it is often used in combination with Chaihu, Danggui and Baishao, as in the Xiaoyao Powder. For spasm and pain in the extremities due to deficiency of yin-blood, it is prescribed with Gancao, as in the Shaoyao Gancao Decoction.

3. Hyperactivity of liver yang with headache and vertigo    In this case, it is prescribed with Niuxi, Daizheshi and Longgu, as in the Zhengan Xifeng Decoction.

4. Sweating with aversion to wind, night sweating due to yin deficiency      For sweating with aversion to wind, which is due to external contraction of wind-cold and disharmony between nutrient and defense, it is prescribed with Guizhi, as in Guizhi Decoction. For night sweating due to yin deficiency, it is combined with Longgu and Fuxiaomai.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 5-10g. or 15-30g in large dosage.

[ Precautions ]: It is not recomended for deficiency-cold due to yang declination and incompatible with Lilu.

[ Medicinal Comparison ]: Similarities: Both Baishaoand Chishao have the action of relieving pain and are indicated for various  pains. However, the former is good at emolliating liver to relive pain and treats syndrome of liver-spleen disharmony, manifested as pain in the hypochondrium, stomach ad abdomen, or spasm and pain in the extremities. The latter is good at relieving pain by activating blood and dispelling stasis and treats hypochondriac pain due to liver depression with blood stasis, dysmenorrhea due to blood stasis, abdominal mass and pain, injuries from falls and ecchymoma.

Differences: Baishao also has the efficacy of regulating menstruation, suppressing liver and relieve pain and astringing yin to arrest sweating and is used to treat irregular menstruation, menorrhagia and metrostaxis, due to deficiency of liver-blood, headache, vertigo due to hyperactivity of liver yang, sweating with aversion to wind due to disharmony between nutrient and defense and night sweating due to yin deficiedncy. Chishao also has the action of clearing heat, cooling  blood and purging liver fire and treats ecchymosis due to warm-toxin, hematemesis and epistaxis due to blood heat, abscesses  and sores, red eyes due to liver fire.

Similarities: Both Danggui and Baishao have the action of tonifying blood, regulating menstruation and relieving pain and are indicated for blood deficiency syndrome, irregular menstruation and pains. However, the former, being pungent and warm, treats pains due to blood stasis. The latter,  being sour, actions to astringe yin , relieves pain in the hypochondrium, stomach and abdomen, or spasm and pain in the extremities, due to liver-spleen disharmony.

Differneces: Danggui has the added action of activating blood, moistening bowels and trats traumatic injuries, abscesses and ulcers, arthralgia due to wind-cold-dampness and constipation due to intestinal dryness. Due to the action of astringing yin to arrest sweating, suppressing haperactivity of liver yang, Baishao treats headache and vertigo due to hyperactivity of liver yang, sweating with aversion to wind, night sweating due to yin deficiency.

 白芍为毛莨科植物芍药Raeonia lactiflora pall.的根。主产于浙江、安徽、四川等地。夏秋季采挖,去净泥土和支根,去皮,沸水浸或略煮至受热均匀,晒干。用时润透切片。一般生用或酒炒或清炒用。

       【药性】苦、酸,微寒。归肝、脾经。        【功效】养血敛阴,柔肝止痛,平抑肝阳。       
 
【应用】        1.肝血亏虚及血虚月经不调。本品味酸,收敛肝阴以养血,常与熟地、当归等同用,用治肝血亏虚,面色苍白,眩晕心悸,或月经不调,崩中漏下,如四物汤(《和剂局方》)。若血虚有热,月经不调,可配伍黄芩、黄柏、续断等药,如保阴煎(《景岳全书》);若崩漏,可与阿胶、艾叶等同用。       
 
2.肝脾不和之胸胁脘腹疼痛或四肢挛急疼痛。本品酸敛肝阴,养血柔肝而止痛,常配柴胡、当归、白芍等,治疗血虚肝郁,胁肋疼痛,如逍遥散(《和剂局方》);也可以本品调肝理脾,柔肝止痛,与白术、防风、陈皮同用;治疗脾虚肝旺,腹痛泄泻,如痛泻要方(《景岳全书》);若与木香、黄连等同用,可治疗痢疾腹痛,如芍药汤(《素问病机气宜保命集》);若阴血虚筋脉失养而致手足挛急作痛,常配甘草缓急止痛,即芍药甘草汤(《伤寒论》)。       
 
3.肝阳上亢之头痛眩晕。以本品养血敛阴、平抑肝阳,常配牛膝、代赭石、龙骨、牡蛎等,如镇肝息风汤、建瓴汤(《医学衷中参西录》)        此外,本品敛阴,有止汗之功。若外感风寒,营卫不和之汗出恶风,可敛阴和营,与温经通阳的桂枝等用,以调和营卫,如桂枝汤(《伤寒论》);至于阴虚盗汗,则须与龙骨、牡蛎、浮小麦等同用,可收敛阴止汗的功效。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,5~15g;大剂量15~30g。       
 
【鉴别用药】白芍与赤芍《神农本草经》不分,通称芍药,唐末宋初,始将二者区分。二者虽同出一物而性微寒,但前人谓“白补赤泻,白收赤散”,一语而道破二者的主要区别。一般认为,在功效方面,白芍长于养血调经,敛阴止汗,平抑肝阳;赤芍则长于清热凉血,活血散瘀,清泄肝火。在应用方面,白芍主治血虚阴亏,肝阳偏亢诸证;赤芍主治血热、血瘀、肝火所致诸证。又白芍、赤芍皆能止痛,均可用治疼痛的病证。但白芍长于养血柔肝,缓急止痛,主治肝阴不足,血虚肝旺,肝气不舒所致的胁肋疼痛、脘腹四肢拘挛作痛;而赤芍则长于活血祛瘀止痛,主治血滞诸痛证,因能清热凉血,故血热瘀滞者尤为适宜。       
 
【使用注意】阳衰虚寒之证不宜用。反藜芦。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主邪气腹痛,……止痛,利小便,益气。”        2.《本草求真》:“赤芍药与白芍药主治略同,但白则有敛阴益营之力,赤则止有散邪行血之意;白则能于土中泻木,赤则能于血中活滞。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:白芍含有芍药苷、牡丹酚芍药花苷,还含芍药内酯、苯甲酸等。此外,还含挥发油、脂肪油、树脂糖、淀粉、粘液质、蛋白质和三萜类成分。       
 
 2.药理作用:白芍水煎剂给小鼠喂饲腹腔巨噬百分率和吞噬指数均较对照组有明显提高。白芍能促进小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞的吞噬功能。白芍水煎剂可拮抗环磷酰胺对小鼠外周T淋巴细胞的抑制作用,使之恢复正常水平,表明白芍可使处于低下状态的细胞免疫功能恢复正常。白芍提取物对大鼠蛋清性急性炎症水肿有明显抑制作用,对棉球肉芽肿有抑制增生作用。白芍对醋酸引起的扭体反应有明显的镇痛效果,与甘草的甲醇复合物合用,二者对醋酸扭体反应有协同镇痛作用。芍药中的主要成分芍药苷具有较好的解痉作用。       
 
3.临床研究:杭芍,炙甘草水煎服。上肢肌痛加桂枝、伸筋草;下肢肌痛加续断、牛膝;肩背颈项肌痛加葛根、川芎;胸胁肌痛加柴胡、桔梗;腹部肌痛加佛手、白术治疗肌肉性痉挛综合征(云南中医杂志,1991,12(11):20);白芍、炙甘草治疗面肌抽搐有效(中西医结合杂志,1991,11(1):43)。       

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