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Baitouweng ( Chinese Pulsatilla Root )--白头翁(powder100g/bottle)

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Baitouweng is the dried root of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bge.) Regel., pertaining to Ranunculaceae. It it collected in spring and fall. After the earth and sand are removed, it is drreid, and then cut into thin slices. The raw form is used.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter and cold; relate to stomach and large intestine meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Clear heat, relieve toxicity; cool blood and stop dysentery.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 9-15g. Fresh form 15-30 g.

[ Precautions ]: Avoid with diarrhea and dysentery due to deficiency-cold.
 
[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Damp-heat, diarrhea, dysentery, heat toxin and blood dysentery         Baitouwent is good at clearing damp-heat of stomach and intestines and warm toxinosis of blood level, so it is the most significant medicinal to treat dysentery. By itself, it treats abdominal pain, tenesmus pus and blood stools in heat dysentery, or combined with Huanglian, Huangbo and Qinpi; for example in Baitouweng Decoction.
 
2. Abscess, swelling, sores and toxin     For mumps, scrofula, abscess, sore, swelling and pain, it is combined with Chaihu, Huangqin and Binglang.

 白头翁为毛茛科植物白头翁Pulsatilla chinensis(Bge.) Regel的干燥根。主产于吉林、黑龙江、辽宁、河北、山东、陕西、山西、江西、河南、安徽、江苏等地。春、秋二季采挖,除去叶及残留的花茎和须根,保留根头白绒毛,晒干。切薄片,生用。
      
【药性】苦,寒。归胃、大肠经。       
 
【功效】清热解毒,凉血止痢。       
 
【应用】        1.热毒血痢。本品苦寒降泄,清热解毒,凉血止痢,尤善于清胃肠湿热及血分热毒,故为治热毒血痢之良药。用治热痢腹痛,里急后重,下痢脓血,可单用,或配伍黄连、黄柏、秦皮同用,如白头翁汤(《伤寒论》);若为赤痢下血,日久不愈,腹内冷痛,则以本品与阿胶、干姜、赤石脂等药同用,亦如白头翁汤(《千金方》)。       
 
 2.疮痈肿毒。本品苦寒,主入阳明,有解毒凉血消肿之功,可与蒲公英、连翘等清热解毒,消痈散结药同用,以治疗痄腮、瘰疬、疮痈肿痛等证。        本品若与秦皮等配伍,煎汤外洗,又可治疗阴痒带下。此外尚可用于血热出血以及温疟发热烦躁。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,9~15g,鲜品15~30g。外用适量。        
 
【使用注意】虚寒泄痢忌服。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主温疟狂易寒热,癥瘕积聚,瘿气,逐血止痛,金疮。”       
 
2.《药性论》:“止腹痛及赤毒痢,治齿痛,主项下瘤疬。”       
 
3.《本草汇言》:“凉血,消瘀,解湿毒。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品主要含皂苷,水解产生三萜皂苷、葡萄糖、鼠李糖等,并含白头翁素、23-羟基白桦酸、胡萝卜素等。       
 
2.药理作用:白头翁鲜汁、煎剂、乙醇提取物在体外对金黄色葡萄球菌、绿脓杆菌、痢疾杆菌、枯草杆菌、伤寒杆菌、沙门氏杆菌以及一些皮肤真菌等,均具有明显的抑制作用。本品煎剂及所含皂苷有明显的抗阿米巴原虫作用。本品对阴道滴虫有明显的杀灭作用;对流感病毒也有轻度抑制作用。另外,尚具有一定的镇静、镇痛及抗惊厥作用,其地上部分具有强心作用。       
 
3.临床研究:据报道,本品常用于细菌性痢疾和阿米巴痢疾,对阿米巴性肝脓肿也有一定疗效,但需多法配合和随证加减(中药药理与应用 2000:343);近年来白头翁尚可用于其他多种疾病,如:用白头翁水煎,沉淀过滤浓缩口服,治疗久治不愈、尚未溃破的淋巴结核52例,总治愈率84.6%(北京中医药大学学报1995,18:3);用白头翁、夏枯草、玄参、生大黄水煎取汁,做超声雾化,治疗绿脓杆菌性肺炎7例,6例有效,痰培养转阴(中医杂志1996,12:103);以白头翁为主,随证加减治疗盆腔炎36例,其中急性期22例,慢性期14例,疗效显著(长春市中医学院学报1998,3:34)。此外,以原白头翁素静脉注射,对肺部鳞癌、未分化癌及黑色素瘤等有一定效果;本品尚可用治消化性溃疡、神经性皮炎、急性肾盂肾炎、坏死性肠炎、功能性子宫出血等。       
 
4.不良反应:鲜白头翁全草捣烂后因原白头翁素逸出而有强烈的刺激性气味,对皮肤粘膜具有强烈的刺激作用,接触眼部可引起流泪;吸入可引起喷嚏、咳嗽;内服可引起流涎、胃肠炎症、呕吐、腹痛、肾炎、血尿及心衰,并可因呼吸衰竭而死。干燥久贮者局部刺激作用大为降低。       

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