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Baizhu (Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome)---白术(powder100g/bottle)

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This medicinal is the dried root of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz(fam. Compositae).The one produced in Yuqian of  Zhejing Province is of the best quality and is known as Yuzhu. It is collected in winter. After being baked ordried by natural sunlight and its rootlets removed, it is sliced into thick segments and used in its unprepared form or stir-baked with bran or earth form.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Sweet, bitter, warm; relate to spleen and stomach meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Invigorate spleen and replenish qi; dry dampness and induce diuresis; stop sweating; prevent abortion.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1.Spleen qi deficiency syndrome   It treats lasstiude, lack of strength, anorexia, loose stool or diarrhea, due to deficiency of spleen qi, in combination with Renshen, Fuling, as in the Sijunzi Decocotion.

2. Edema, phlegm-fluid retention   For edema due to spleen deficiency, it is used in combination with Fuling and Zexie; for spleen deficiency with inactivation of middle yang and phlegm-fluid retention, it is used with Guizhi and Fuling, as in the Linggui Zhugan Decoction.

3.Spontaneous sweating due to qi deficiency    It may be used by itself or in combination with Huangqi and Fuxiaomai. For qi deficiency with vulnerability to wind pathogens, it is prescribed with Fangfeng, as in the Yupingfeng Powder.

4. Threatened abortion due to spleen deficiency    It treats malnutrition of fetus due to spleen deficiency in combination with Renshen and E jiao. For morning sickness, anorexia, heavey sensation in extremities, due to spleen deficiency with interior accumulation of damp turbidity, it is combined with Renshen and Sharen.

[ Usage and Dosage ]:6-12g  It is more effective to tonify qi, invigorate spleen and stop diarrhea in its baked form.

[ Precautions ]: It is warm and dry, so it is not recommended for febrile disease with consumption of fluid, as well as yin deficiency with thirst.

[Medicinal Comparison ]: Similarities:Both Baizhu and Cangzhu have the same functions of invigorating spleen and drying dampness.

Differences: Baizhu focuses on invigorating spleen and replenishing qi and treats spleen deficiency with damp harassment, with deficiency as dominant aspect.

Cangzhu ,bitter and warm, functions to dry dampness and treats interior retention of damp turbidity with excess being its dominant aspect. Besides, Baizhu functions to induce diuresis, stop sweating and prevent abortion and treats edema, qi dificiency with spontaneous sweating and spleen deficiency with threatened abortion.Cangzhu also functions to induce sweating to relieve superfiencies, dispel wind-damp and brighten eyes. It treats wind-cold-damp exterior syndrome, wind-damp arthralgia, night blindness and blurry vision with dry eyes.

Similarities:Both Huangqi and Baizhu function to tonify qi, induce diuresis, stop sweating.

Differences:  Huangqi, sweet and warm, is stronger in tonifying qi, raising yang and tonifying both spleen and lung, expelling toxin and discharging pus, promoting tissue regeneration and healing wound; therefore, it treats sinking of middle qi manifested as proctoptosis or prolapse of internal organs, deificiency of lung qi as well as deficiency of both qi and blood manifested as chronic ulcers which fail to heal.

Baizhu,being good at invigorating the spleen to dispel dampness, prevents threatened abortion and treats the syndrome of spleen-deficiency with damp harassment and threatened abortion, due to spleen deficiency.

白术为菊科植物白术Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.的根茎。主产于浙江、湖北、湖南等地。以浙江于潜产者最佳,称为“于术”。冬季采收,烘干或晒干,除去须根,切厚片,生用或土炒、麸炒用。

       【药性】甘、苦,温。归脾、胃经。        【功效】健脾益气,燥湿利尿,止汗,安胎。       
 
 【应用】        1.脾气虚证。本品甘苦性温,主归脾胃经,以健脾、燥湿为主要作用,被前人誉之为“脾脏补气健脾第一要药”。脾主运化因脾气不足,运化失健,往往水湿内生,引起食少、便溏或泄泻、痰饮、水肿、带下诸证。本品既长于补气以复脾之健运,又能燥湿、利尿以除湿邪。治脾虚有湿,食少便溏或泄泻,常与人参、茯苓等品同用,如四君子汤(《和剂局方》)。脾虚中阳不振,痰饮内停者,宜与温阳化气、利水渗湿之品配伍,如苓桂术甘汤(《金匮要略》)。对脾虚水肿,本品可与茯苓、桂枝等药同用。脾虚湿浊下注,带下清稀者,可与健脾燥湿之品同用。       
 
2.气虚自汗。本品对于脾气虚弱,卫气不固,表虚自汗者,其作用与黄芪相似而力稍逊,亦能补脾益气,固表止汗。《千金方》单用本品治汗出不止。脾肺气虚,卫气不固,表虚自汗,易感风邪者,宜与黄芪、防风等补益脾肺、祛风之品配伍,以固表御邪,如玉屏风散(《丹溪心法》)。       
 
 3.脾虚胎动不安。本品还能益气安胎。治疗脾虚胎儿失养者,本品可补气健脾,促进水谷运以养胎,宜与人参、阿胶等补益气血之品配伍;治疗脾虚失运,湿浊中阻之妊娠恶阻,呕恶不食,四肢沉重者,本品可补气健脾燥湿,宜与人参、茯苓、陈皮等补气健脾除湿之品配伍;治疗脾虚妊娠水肿,本品既能补气健脾,又能利水消肿,亦常与健脾利水之品配伍使用。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,6~12g。炒用可增强补气健脾止泻作用。       
 
【使用注意】本品性偏温燥,热病伤津及阴虚燥渴者不宜。       
 
【鉴别用药】白术与苍术,古时统称为“术”,后世逐渐分别入药。二药均具有健脾与燥湿两种主要功效。然白术以健脾益气为主,宜用于脾虚湿困而偏于虚证者;苍术以苦温燥湿为主,宜用于湿浊内阻而偏于实证者。此外,白术还有利尿、止汗、安胎之功,苍术还有发汗解表、祛风湿及明目作用,分别还有其相应的主治病证。       
 
 【古籍摘要】        《本草通玄》:“补脾胃之药,更无出其右者。土旺则能健运,故不能食者,食停滞者,有痞积者,皆用之也。土旺则能胜湿,故患痰饮者,肿满者,湿痹者,皆赖之也。土旺则清气善升,而精微上奉,浊气善除,而糟粕下输,故吐泻者,不可阙也。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含挥发油,油中主要有苍术酮、苍术醇、苍术醚、杜松脑、苍术内脂等,并含有果糖、菊糖、白术多糖,多种氨基酸及维生素A类成份等。       
 
2.药理作用:白术对肠管活动有双向调节作用,当肠管兴奋时呈抑制作用,而肠管抑制时则呈兴奋作用;有防治实验性胃溃疡的作用;有强壮作用;能促进小鼠体重增加;能明显促进小肠蛋白质的合成;能促进细胞免疫功能;有一定提升白细胞作用;还能保肝、利胆、利尿、降血糖、抗血凝、抗菌、抗肿瘤。白术挥发油有镇静作用。       
 
 3.临床研究:据报道,治肝硬化腹水用白术30~60g,迁延性肝炎用白术30g,原发性肝癌用白术60~100g,脾虚湿阻者用焦白术,阴虚津亏者用生白术,并随证配伍,收到了较好疗效(安徽中医学院学报,1984,2:25);以白术30g,炙山甲6g,加入白酒100ml,加盖,加热至沸后减弱火力,保持微沸半小时,倾出药液;重煎一次,合并煎液,早晚两次分服,1日1剂,连服2~3剂,治疗慢性腰痛受寒湿或劳累加重者243例,疗效满意(山东中医学院学报,1993,1:51)。
 
本品还有用于耳源性眩晕、急性肠炎、白细胞减少症、便秘等疾病的报道。

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