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Biejia (Turtle Shell)---鳖甲

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Product Description

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This medicinal is the tergum of the animal Trionyx sinensis Wiegmann(Fam. Trionychidae). The animal can be captured all the year round. After being killed, it is scalded with boiling water untill the tergum is capable of being taken, and then it is cleared of remnant flesh. After which, it is dried by natural sunlight and soaked with vinegar and stir-baked with sand.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Salty, sweet and slightly cold; relate to liver and kidney meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]:Nourish yin and suppress yang; reduce bone-steaming fever; soften hardness and dissipate nodulation.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Yin deficiency with internal heat, yin deficiency with wind stirring inside, yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity    In order to treat the advanced stage of febrile disease, with night fever which is alleviated at dawn, no sweating after receding of fever, due to consumption of yin fluid and hidden evils in yin phase, it is combined with Mudanpi, Shengdihuang and Qinghao, in the Qinghao Biejia Decoction. In treating bone-steaing tidal fever due to deficiency of yin-blood, it is combined with Qinjiao and Digupi. If clonic convulsions are due to yin deificiency with wind stirring inside, it is combined with Ejiao and Shengdihuang.

2. Abdominal masses     It treats abdominal masses in combination with Mudanpi, Taoren and Tubiechong, as in the Biejiaian Pill.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 9-24g, decocted first. Stir-baked with sand and soaked with vinegar, its active ingredients are easily to be decocted out, its ordorus smell can be removed, and it is easier to be ground into powder and convenient for making preparations.

[ Medicinal Comparison ]:Similarities: Both Gujia and Biejia function to nourish liver-kidney yin, pacify liver and subdue yang. They are indicated for insufficiency of kidney yin with up-flaming of deficiency-fire presenting with manifestations of bone-steaming tidal fever, night sweating, spermatorrhea. In addition, both medicinals are indicated for insufficiency of liver yin with hyperactivity of liver yang, with manifestations of headache and vertigo.

Differences: Guijia is good at nourishing kidney yin and Biejia reducing deficiency-heat, while Biejia has the action of strengthening bones, nourishing blood and replenishing heart. In addition, Beijia treats insufficiency of liver and kidney, manifested as weakness of the tendons and bones, limpness and soreness in the lumbar region and knees, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis, as well as , insufficiecy of heart blood, manifesting as insomnia and amnesia. Biejia also actions to soften hardness and dissipate nodules, and treats abdominal mass.

鳖甲为鳖科动物鳖Trionyx sinensis Wiegmann的背甲。主产于湖北、湖南、安徽等地。全年均可捕捉,杀死后置沸水中烫至背甲上硬皮能剥落时取出,除去残肉,晒干,以砂炒后醋淬用。

       【药性】甘、咸,寒。归肝、肾经。        【功效】滋阴潜阳,退热除蒸,软坚散结。       
 
【应用】        1.肝肾阴虚证。本品亦能滋养肝肾之阴,适用于肝肾阴虚所致阴虚内热、阴虚风动、阴虚阳亢诸证。对阴虚内热证,本品滋养之力不及龟甲,但长于退虚热、除骨蒸,故尤为临床多用。治疗温病后期,阴液耗伤,邪伏阴分,夜热早凉,热退无汗者,常与丹皮、生地、青蒿等品同用,如青蒿鳖甲汤(《温病条辨》)。治疗阴血亏虚,骨蒸潮热者,常与秦艽、地骨皮等品同用。主治阴虚风动,手足瘈疭者,常与阿胶、生地、麦冬等品同用。       
 
2.癥瘕积聚。本品味咸,还长于软坚散结,适用于肝脾肿大等癥瘕积聚。常与活血化瘀、行气化痰药配伍,如鳖甲煎丸(《金匮要略》)以之与丹皮、桃仁、虫、厚朴、半夏等品同用,治疟疾日久不愈,胁下痞硬成块。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,9~24g。宜先煎。本品经砂炒醋淬后,有效成分更容易煎出;其可去其腥气,易于粉碎,方便制剂。       
 
 【鉴别用药】龟甲与鳖甲,均能滋养肝肾之阴、平肝潜阳。均宜用于肾阴不足,虚火亢旺之骨蒸潮热、盗汗、遗精及肝阴不足,肝阳上亢之头痛、眩晕等症。但龟甲长于滋肾,鳖甲长于退虚热。此外,龟甲还兼有健骨、补血、养心等功效,还常用肝肾不足,筋骨痿弱,腰膝酸软,妇女崩漏、月经过多及心血不足,失眠、健忘等证。鳖甲还兼软坚散结作用,还常于腹内癥瘕积聚。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主心腹癥瘕坚积,寒热,去痞息肉……”。       
 
 2.《本草汇言》:“除阴虚热疟,解劳热骨蒸之药也。厥阴血闭邪结,渐至寒热,为癥瘕,为痞胀,为疟疾,为淋沥,为骨蒸者,咸得主之。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含动物胶、骨胶原、角蛋白、17种氨基基酸、碳酸钙、磷酸钙、碘、维生素D及锌、铜、锰等微量元素。       
 
 2.药理作用:鳖甲能降低实验性甲亢动物血浆CAMP含量;能提高淋巴母细胞转化率,延长抗体存在时间,增强免疫功能;能保护肾上腺皮质功能;能促进造血功能,提高血红蛋白含量;能抑制结缔组织增生,故可消散肿块;有防止细胞突变作用;还有一定镇静作用。      
 
  3.临床研究:据报道,以鳖甲、穿山甲各等份共研细末,每服4g,以饭后蜂蜜调服更佳,2个月为1疗程,治疗肝脾肿大患者100例,其中78例肝脾明显回缩或至正常,血小板上升至10万以上/mm3(陕西中医,1989,7:315);以醋炙鳖甲、炮甲珠3∶2用量共研细末,每服6g,1日2次,治疗肝病血清蛋白比例倒置,服药24天~107天后,有一定疗效(山西中医,1990,5:24)。       

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