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Bingpian (Borneol)---冰片

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Product Description

It is the proessed resin of Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertin. f.,family Dipterocarpceae, or the crystals form evaporated trunk of this kind of trees, which is called Longnao Bingpian or Meipian. It can also be made from the sublimation of leaves of Blumea balsamifera (L.)DC.,family Compositae, which is named "Aipian". Nowadays, it is mostly synthesized from trupentine oil and camphor and it is called"synthetic resin" or "Jizhi Bingpian" in Chinese. The finished product should be stored in cool place ad in a closed container. It is ground into powder for medicinal use.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Pungent , bitter and slightly cold; relate to heart, spleen and lung meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Regain consciousness; clear away heat and alleviate pain.

[ CLinical Applications ]: 1. Heat sthenia-syndrome of coma       It is efficient for heat type of sthenia-syndrome of coma          When used for such types as syndromes of inner blockage of phlegm-heat, sudden fainting due to summer-heat, infantile convulsions, it is often combined with Niuhuag, Shexiang and Huanglian, such as in the Angong Niuhuang Pill.

2. Inflammation of throat, aphthae, reddish swollen and painful eyes, carbucle and ulcer, and scald       For sore throat and aphthae, it is usually ground into powder together with Pengsha, Zhusha and Xuanmingfewn, and Xuanmingfen and blown onto the affected parts of the body for external application; for example the Bingpeng Powder. In cases of reddish, swollen and painful eyes, it may be dropped into the eyes, as an individual medicinal or made into eye-drops combined together with luganshi, Xuejie and Ruxiang. In addition, for scalds caused by fire or hot water, it is mainly used for external application.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 0.15-0.3g is used in pill or powder form. The appropriate amount is needed for external application. It is ground into powder and applied to the affected part of the body.

[ Precautions ]: It is used with caution when treating pregnant women.

[ Medicinal Comparison ]: Simlilarities: Shexiang and Bingpain are aromatic and have the efficacies of regaining consciousness. They are often used together for sthenia-syndrome of coma.

Differneces: Shexiang is warm and has a much stronger action of regaining consciousness and is the primary medicinal both for heat type and cold-type of sthenia syndrome of coma. The action of Bingpain is weaker and it is  slightly cold in nature, which makes it suitable for the heat-type. Shexiang also has the actions of activating the blood and the meridians, alleviating pain and promoting procreation of fetus, for which it could be used for amenorrhea due to blood-stasis, abdomen mass, trauma, Bi-syndrome pain, swollen ulcer,  sore throat, and dystocia, dead fetus and retention of placenta. Bingpian is bitter and cold, and has the function of clearing away heat and toxin and alleviationg pain, for which it could be used to treat reddish swollen and painful eyes, aphthae, inflammation of throat, swollen ulcer and pain, and chronic carbuncle and ulcer. Both of them can be used in pill and powder form.

冰片为龙脑香科植物龙脑香Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. f.树脂加工品,或龙脑香树的树干、树枝切碎,经蒸馏冷却而得的结晶,称“龙脑冰片”,亦称“梅片”。由菊科植物艾纳香(大艾)Blumea balsamifera DC.叶的升华物经加工劈削而成,称“艾片”。现多用松节油、樟脑等,经化学方法合成,称“机制冰片”。龙脑香主产于东南亚地区,我国台湾有引种;艾纳香主产于广东、广西、云南、贵州等地。冰片成品须贮于阴凉处,密闭。研粉用。

       【药性】辛、苦,微寒。归心、脾,肺经。        【功效】开窍醒神,清热止痛。       
 
【应用】        1.闭证神昏。本品味辛气香,有开窍醒神之功效,功似麝香但力较弱,二者常相须为用。冰片性偏寒凉,为凉开之品,更宜用于热病神昏。治疗痰热内闭、暑热卒厥、小儿惊风等热闭证,常与牛黄、麝香、黄连等配伍,如安宫牛黄丸(《温病条辨》);若闭证属寒,常与苏合香、安息香、丁香等温开药配伍,如苏合香丸(《和剂局方》)。       
 
 2.目赤肿痛,喉痹口疮。本品苦寒,有清热止痛、泻火解毒、明目退翳、消肿之功,为五官科常用药。治疗目赤肿痛,单用点眼即效,也可与炉甘石、硼砂、熊胆等制成点眼药水,如八宝眼药水(《全国中药成药处方集》);治疗咽喉肿痛、口舌生疮,常与硼砂、朱砂、玄明粉共研细末,吹敷患处,如冰硼散(《外科正宗》);治疗风热喉痹,以冰片与灯心草、黄柏、白矾共为末,吹患处取效(《濒湖集简方》)。      
 
  3.疮疡肿痛,疮溃不敛,水火烫伤。本品有清热解毒、防腐生肌作用,故外用清热消肿、生肌敛疮方中均用冰片。治疮疡溃后日久不敛,可配伍牛黄、珍珠、炉甘石等,如八宝丹(《疡医大全》),或与象皮、血竭、乳香等同用,如生肌散(《经验方》);治水火烫伤,可用本品与银朱、香油制成药膏外用(《中草药新医疗法资料选编》);治疗急、慢性化脓性中耳炎,可以本品搅溶于核桃油中滴耳。        此外,本品用治冠心病心绞痛及齿痛,有一定疗效。       
 
【用法用量】入丸、散,每次0.15~0.3g。外用适量,研粉点敷患处。不宜入煎剂。      【使用注意】孕妇慎用。       
 
【鉴别用药】冰片与麝香同为开窍醒神之品,均可用治热病神昏、中风痰厥、气郁窍闭、中恶昏迷等闭证,然麝香开窍力强而冰片力逊,麝香为温开之品,冰片为凉开之剂,但又常相须为用;二者均可消肿止痛、生肌敛疮,外用治疮疡肿毒。但冰片性偏寒凉,以清热泻火止痛见长,善治口齿、咽喉、耳目之疾,外用有清热止痛、防腐止痒、明目退翳之功;麝香辛温、治疮痈肿毒多以活血散结、消肿止痛功效为用。二者均应入丸、散使用,不入煎剂。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《新修本草》:“主心腹邪气,风湿积聚,耳聋,明目,去目赤肤翳。”  
 
  2.《本草纲目》:“疗喉痹、脑痛、鼻瘜、齿痛、伤寒舌出、小儿痘陷。通诸窍,散郁火。”       
 
3.《医林纂要》:“冰片主散郁火,能透骨热,治惊痫、痰迷、喉痹,舌胀、牙痛、耳聋、鼻息、目赤浮翳、痘毒内陷、杀虫、痔疮、催生,性走而不守,亦能生肌止痛。然散而易竭,是终归阴寒也。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:龙脑冰片含右旋龙脑,又含葎草烯、β-榄香烯、石竹烯等倍半萜,以及齐墩果酸、麦珠子酸、积雪草酸、龙脑香醇、古柯二醇等三萜化合物。艾片含左旋龙脑。机制冰片为消旋混合龙脑。       
 
 2.药理作用:冰片中的主要成分龙脑、异龙脑均有耐缺氧的作用;龙脑、异龙脑有镇静作用;冰片局部应用对感觉神经有轻微刺激,有一定的止痛及温和的防腐作用;经肠系膜吸收迅速,给药5分钟即可通过血脑屏障,且在脑蓄积时间长,量也相当高,此为冰片的芳香开窍作用提供了初步实验依据;较高浓度(0.5%)对葡输球菌、链球菌、肺炎双球茵、大肠杆菌及部分致病性皮肤真菌等有抑制作用;对中、晚期妊娠小鼠有引产作用。       
 
 3.临床研究:将2~7mm大小的冰片置于0.6cm的胶布上贴耳穴,治疗头痛,主穴取神门、脑、皮质下(河南中医,1988,5:23);将冰片50g,溶于75%乙醇100ml中,用棉球蘸之涂擦,治疗晚期肿瘤疼痛,涂擦面应超过疼痛部位(中华护理杂志,1991,3:114);外用冰片霜治疗慢性肛门湿疹62例,在搔痒部位外涂冰片霜,连用3个疗程(21天),结果治愈59例,总有效率98.4%。(江苏中医,2001,5:30)。
 
另外有单用冰片或配青黛、芒硝制成外用剂外敷(涂)治疗多种外科感染性炎症,如带状疱疹丹毒、急性乳腺炎、蜂窝组织炎、疖肿、淋巴管炎、静脉炎、阑尾脓肿等。       

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