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Cangzhu ( Atractylodes Rhizome )---苍术(powder100g/bottle)

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The source is from the rhizoe of Atractylodes lancea ( Thunb.) DC. or Atractylodes chinensis ( DC.) Koidz., family Compositae. The medicinal herb porduced in Maoshan of Jiangsu Province has the best quality. It is collected in the spring and autumn, dried in the sun and then cut into pieces. The crude one or stir-baked with wheat bran or water in which rice has been washed is for use.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Pungent, bitter and warm; relate to spleen, stomach and liver meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Dry dampness and invigorate the spleen, dispel wind-damp, disperse cold and release the exterior.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-9g.

[ Precautions ]: Contraindicated in yin deficiency with interior heat. Profuse sweating due to qi deficiency.
 
[ clinical Applications ]: 1. Retention of dampness in the middle energizer    For retention of dampness in the middle energizer manifested as epigastric and abdominal stuffiness, nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, diarrhea, fatigue,etc., it is usually combined with Houpo and Chenpi, etc.,such as in Pingwei Powder. For phlegm and fluid or edema of spleen insufficiency with retention of dampness, it is in combination with Fulig, Zexie and Zhuling, such as in Weiling Decoction.
 
2. Bi-syndrome of wind-damp    For bi-syndrome of wind-damp with preponderance of damp, it can be used together with Yiyiren and Duhuo, etc. For flaccidity of damp-heat, it can be combined with Huangbai, Yiyiren and Niuxi to make up Simiao Pill.
 
3. Exterior wind-cold syndrome      It is pungent and dry that facilitate dispelling wind-cold and resolving damp. For exterior wind-cold syndrome with damp, it is usually combined with Qianghuo, Baizhi and Fangfeng, etc.,such as in Shenzhu Powder.
 
In addition, it can improve vision, so it can be used for night blindness alone or together with liver of goats and pigs.
 
[ Medicinal Comparison ]: Similarities: Cangzhu, Huoxiang and Peilan all belong to damp-resolving medica and can be used to treat retention of dampness in the middle energizer.
 
Differneces: Among them Cangzhu is bitter, warm and dry, so it is the essential medicinal to dry dampness and invigorate the spleen, which is not only for retention of dampness in the middle energizer, but also for other damp syndromes such as bi-syndrome of wind-dam and exterior wind-cold syndrome with damp.  Huoxiang and Peilan are slightly warm or neutral and their principle action is to resolve dampness and enliven the spleen. So, they are mainly indicated to treat damp harassment of spleen.

苍术为菊科植物茅苍术Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.)DC.或北苍术 Atractylodes chinensis (DC.) Koidz.的干燥根茎。前者主产于江苏、湖北、河南等地,以产于江苏茅山一带者质量最好,故名茅苍术。后者主产于内蒙古、山西、辽宁等地。春、秋二季采挖,晒干。切片,生用、麸炒或米泔水炒用。
      
【药性】辛,苦,温。归脾、胃、肝经。        【功效】燥湿健脾,祛风散寒。       
 
 【应用】        1.湿阻中焦证。本品苦温燥湿以祛湿浊,辛香健脾以和脾胃。对湿阻中焦,脾失健运而致脘腹胀闷,呕恶食少,吐泻乏力,舌苔白腻等症,最为适宜。常与厚朴、陈皮等配伍,如平胃散(《和剂局方》)。若脾虚湿聚,水湿内停的痰饮或外溢的水肿,则同利水渗湿之茯苓、泽泻、猪苓等同用,如胃苓汤(《证治准绳》)。若湿热或暑湿证,则可与清热燥湿药同用。       
 
2.风湿痹证。本品辛散苦燥,长于祛湿,故痹证湿胜者尤宜,可与薏苡仁、独活等祛风湿药同用,如薏苡仁汤(《类证治裁》)。若湿热痹痛,可配石膏、知母等清热泻火药,如白虎加苍术汤(《普济本事方》),或与黄柏、薏苡仁、牛膝配伍合用,用于湿热痿证,即四妙散(《成方便读》)。若与龙胆草、黄芩、栀子 清热燥湿药同用,可治下部湿浊带下、湿疮、湿疹等。       
 
 3.风寒挟湿表证。本品辛香燥烈,能开肌腠而发汗,祛肌表之风寒表邪,又因其长于胜湿,故以风寒表证挟湿者最为适宜。常与羌活、白芷、防风等同用,如神术散(《和剂局方》)。       
 
 此外,本品尚能明目,用于夜盲症及眼目昏涩。可单用,或与羊肝、猪肝蒸煮同食。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,5~10g。        【使用注意】阴虚内热,气虚多汗者忌用。        【鉴别用药】苍术、藿香、佩兰均为芳香化湿药,具有化湿之力,用于湿阻中焦证。但苍术苦温燥烈,可燥湿健脾,不仅适用于湿阻中焦,亦可用于其它湿邪泛滥之症;而藿香、佩兰性微温或平,以化湿醒脾为主,多用于湿邪困脾之症。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主风寒湿痹,死肌痉疸。作煎饵久服,轻身延年不饥。”        2.《名医别录》:“主头痛,消痰水,逐皮间风水结肿,除心下急满及霍乱吐下不止,暖胃消谷嗜食。”        3.《本草纲目》:“治湿痰留饮……脾湿下流,浊沥带下,滑泄肠风。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:主要含挥发油,油中主含苍术醇(系β-桉油醇和茅术醇的混合结晶物)。其它尚含少量苍术酮、维生素A样物质、维生素B及菊糖。       
 
 2.药理作用:其挥发油有明显的抗副交感神经介质乙酰胆碱引起的肠痉挛;对交感神经介质肾上腺素引起的肠肌松弛,苍术制剂能促进肾上腺抑制作用的振幅恢复.苍术醇有促进胃肠运动作用,对胃平滑肌也有微弱收缩作用。苍术挥发油对中枢神经系统,小剂量是镇静作用,同时使脊髓反射亢进;大剂量则呈抑制作用。苍术煎剂有降血糖作用,同时具排钠、排钾作用;其维生素A样物质可治疗夜盲及角膜软化症。       
 
3.临床研究:据报道,以苍术为主或适当配伍还可用于治疗其它多种疾病,如:单用苍术泡水饮服,治疗胃下垂,颇获良效(中医杂志,1997,2:72);或用苍术煎汁,冲服生鸡内金末,治疗小儿厌食症,亦有良效(中医杂志,1997,1:7);用苍术10~15g,配入黄芪、沙参、五味子等组成“金水相生饮”,治疗糖尿病,总有效率为92%(中医杂志,1997,2:70);用苍术20g、白芷20g、乌梅15g、五味子15g,水煎,采用蒸气吸入法,治疗鼻息肉30余例均可收效(辽宁中医杂志,1984,7:85)。
 
另外,还可用治耳鸣、烧烫伤及寻常性鱼鳞病。       
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