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Chuanxiong ( Szechwan Lovage Rhizome/Ligustic)---川芎(powder100g/bottle)

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It is the dried rhizome of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort.,family Umbrelliferae. The medicinal material is mainly produced in Sichuan and it is of the best quality. After the fibrous root  is removed, it is moistened and cut into pieces. Then , it can be utilized in the raw, or stir-baked with liquor or bran, form.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Pungent, warm; relate to liver, gallbladder and pericardium meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ] : Active blood and move qi; expel wind and alleviate pain.

[ Clinical Applications]: 1. Stagnation of blood and qi       For irregular menstruation, dysmenorrheal and amenorrhea, this medicinal is usually comined with Danggui and Xiangfu. In cases of postpartum abdominal pain due to unsmooth circulation of blood caused by stagnation of liver qi , it is combined with Chaihu, Xiangfu. In case of physical trauma, use with Chisao and Honghua. Also for carbuncle, sore, purulence without ulceration, combine with Danggui and Chuanshanjia, such as , in the Tounong Powder.

2.Headache and bi-syndrome pain of wind and damp       For headache due to external contraction of wind-cold, it is usually combined with Baizhi, Fangfeng and Xixin, such as, in the Chuanxiongchatiao Powder. Yet, if the headache is due to wind-heat, it should be combined with Juhua, Shigao and Jiangchan, such as in the Chuanxiong Powder. If a patient has a headache due to wind-dampness, it is often used with Qianghuo, Gaoben and Fangfeng, for example, in the qianghuo shengshi Decoction. With blood-stasis resulting in headache, it is useful to combine with Chishao , Honghua and Danshen. For blood-deficiency causing headache, Danggui and Baishao should be combined together. For painful joints due to Bi-syndrome blockage, it is useful to combine with Qianghuo, Duhuo and Sangzhi.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-9g. For powder form, 1-1.5g is used and taken for each administration.

[ Precautions ]: It is pungent, warm, ascending and dispersing, so it is contraindicated in cases with a reddish tongue and dryness of the mouth, caused by yin-deficiency with effulgent-fire. It should be used with caution in case of excessive menstruation and with conditions with bleeding.

川芎为伞形科植物川芎Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.的根茎。主产于四川、贵州、云南, 以四川产者质优。系人工栽培。5月采挖,除去泥沙,晒后烘干,再去须根。用时切片生用或酒炙。

       【药性】辛,温。归肝、胆、心包经。        【功效】活血行气,祛风止痛。       
 
【应用】        1.血瘀气滞痛证。本品辛散温通,既能活血化瘀,又能行气止痛,为“血中之气药”,具通达气血功效,故治气滞血瘀之胸胁、腹部诸痛。若治心脉瘀阻之胸痹心痛,常与丹参、桂枝、檀香等同用;若治肝郁气滞之胁痛,常配柴胡、白芍、香附,如柴胡疏肝散(《景岳全书》);如肝血瘀阻,积聚痞块、胸胁刺痛,多与桃仁、红花等同用,如血府逐瘀汤(《医林改错》)。若治跌仆损伤,瘀肿疼痛,可配乳香、没药、三七等药用。        川芎善“下调经水,中开郁结”,为妇科要药,能活血调经,可用治多种妇产科的疾病。如治血瘀经闭,痛经,常与赤芍、桃仁等同用,如血府逐瘀汤(《医林改错》);若属寒凝血瘀者,可配桂心、当归等,如温经汤(《妇人大全良方》);若治产后恶露不下,瘀阻腹痛,可配当归、桃仁、炮姜等,如生化汤(《傅青主女科》);若治月经不调,经期超前或错后,可配益母草、当归等,如益母胜金丹(《医学心悟》)。       
 
 2.头痛,风湿痹痛。本品辛温升散,能“上行头目”,祛风止痛,为治头痛要药,无论风寒、风热、风湿、血虚、血瘀头痛均可随证配伍用之,故李东垣言“头痛须用川芎”。治风寒头痛,配羌活、细辛、白芷,如川芎茶调散(《和剂局方》);若配菊花、石膏、僵蚕,可治风热头痛,如川芎散(《卫生保健》);若治风湿头痛,可配羌活、独活、防风,如羌活胜湿汤(《内外伤辨惑论》);配当归、白芍,取本品祛风止痛之功,可治血虚头痛,如加味四物汤(《金匮翼》);若治血瘀头痛,可配赤芍、麝香,如通窍活血汤(《医林改错》)。        本品辛散温通,能祛风通络止痛,又可治风湿痹痛,常配独活、秦艽、防风、桂枝等药同用,如独活寄生汤(《千金方》)。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,3~9g。        【使用注意】阴虚火旺,多汗,热盛及无瘀之出血证和孕妇慎用。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主中风入脑头痛、寒痹,筋脉缓急,金疮,妇人血闭无子。”        2.《本草汇言》:“芎,上行头目,下调经水,中开郁结,血中气药。尝为当归所使,非第治血有功,而治气亦神验也……味辛性阳,气善走窜而无阴凝粘滞之态,虽入血分,又能去一切风,调一切气。”       
 
3.《本草新编》:“川芎……血闭者能通,外感者能散,疗头风其神,止金疮疼痛。此药可君可臣,又可为佐使,但不可单用……倘单用一味以补血,则血动,反有散失之忧。若单用一味以止痛,则痛止,转有暴亡之虑。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含生物碱(如川芎嗪),挥发油(主要为藁本内脂、香烩烯等),酚类物质(如阿魏酸),内脂素以及维生素A,叶酸,蔗糖,甾醇,脂肪油等。       
 
 2.药理作用:川芎嗪能扩张冠状动脉,增加冠状动脉血流量,改善心肌的血氧供应,并降低心肌的耗氧量;川芎嗪可扩张脑血管,降低血管阻力,显著增加脑及肢体血流量,改善微循环;能降低血小板表面活性,抑制血小板凝集,预防血栓的形成,;所含阿魏酸的中性成分小剂量促进,大剂量抑制子宫平滑肌;水煎剂对动物中枢神经系统有镇静作用,并有明显而持久的降压作用;可加速骨折局部血肿的吸收,促进骨痂形成;有抗维生素E缺乏作用;能抑制多种杆菌;有抗组织胺和利胆作用。       
 
3.临床研究:川芎在临床上应用广泛。如:用川芎、红花各等份压片,每天口服3次,每次4片(每片含川芎、红花各1.25 克),治疗冠心病心绞痛84例,83例有效。(北京地区冠心病协作组。资料汇编(第二辑),1972,12)。每日用川芎嗪80—100毫升加入5%葡萄糖液500毫升静滴1次,10次为1疗程,治疗缺血性中风急性期66例,恢复期154例,后遗症期47例。结果:急性期有效率100%,恢复期有效率95.4%,后遗症期有效率70.2%。(陕西中医,1988.(9):408)。用川芎24—28克,白酒30毫升,水250毫升,浸泡1小时后,加盖用文火炖煎分2次服,不饮酒者可单加水炖服,治疗功能性子宫出血29例,均有效(陕西中医,1990,11(4):150)。

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