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Dangshen (Tangshen)---党参(powder100g/bottle)

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010.pngThis medicinal is the dried root of Radix Codonopsis pilosula(Frach.) Nannf, C, Pilosula Nannf. Var.modesta (Nannf) L.T. Shen or C. tangshen Oliv.(Fam. Araliaceae). It is harvested in autumn. After being washed clean and dried by sunlight, it is sliced into thick segments and used in its unprocessed form.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Sweet, neutral; relate to spleen and lung meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Invigorate the middle energizer and replenish qi; invigorate spleen and lung; nourish blood and promote fluid production.

[ Clinical Applications ]:1. Insufficiency of middle qi       For lassitude, anorexia, loose stool due to insufficiency of middle qi, it is usually used in combination with Baizhu and Fuling.

2. Lung qi deficiency syndrome      For cough, dyspnea, low and weak voice due to deficiency of lung qi, it is used in combination with Huangqi and Gejie.

3. Syndrome of both qi and blood deficiency       If deficient qi or blood fails to transform into each other, there appears syndrome of both qi and blood deficiency, manifested as pallor or sallow complexion, lack of strength, vertigo and palpations. In this case, it is used in combination with Huangqi and Danggui.

4. Syndrome of both qi and fluid consumption    In a mild case, it should be combined with Maidong and Wuweizi.

 Furthermore, for deficiency syndrome with excess pathogens, such as qi deficiency with external contraction, heat accumulation of interior excess with deficiency of qi and blood, Dangshen is usually used in combination with exterior-expelling medicinals, purgatives, which may reinforce the healthy and eliminate the pathogenic so as to eliminate the pathogenic without damaging the healthy.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 9-30g.

[ Precautions ]: It is recorded in pharmacopoeia that Dangshen should not be used in combination with Lilu.

[ Medicinal Comparison ]: Similarities: Renshen and Dangshen have the functions of tonifying spleen qi , lung qi, replenishing qi to promote fluid and blood production as well strengthening the healthy to eliminate the pathogenic, and are used to treat spleen qi deficiency syndrome, lung qi deficiency syndrome, thirst due to fluid consumption, xiaoke (similar to diabetes), deficiency syndrome of both qi and blood and qi deficiency syndrome with excessive pathogens.

Differences:Dangshen, sweet and neutral, is moderate in function. When used to treat mild or chronic cases in ancient prescriptions, it is often used in larger dosage as a substitute for Renshen. Since Dangshen does not have the same function of replenishing qi to save collapse as Renshen, it cannot be substitute for Renshen in treating collapse. In addition, Renshen is more effective for replenishing qi to invigorate yang, inducing tranquilization and improving intelligence while Dangshen is more effecctivie for nourishing blood.

党参为桔梗科植物党参Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.)Nannf.、素花党参C. Pilosula Nannf. Var.modesta(Nannf.)L.T.Shen或川党参C.tangshen Oliv.的根。主产于山西、陕西、甘肃。秋季采挖洗净,晒干,切厚片,生用。

       【药性】甘,平。归脾、肺经。        【功效】补脾肺气,补血,生津。       
 
【应用】        1.脾肺气虚证。本品性味甘平,主归脾肺二经,以补脾肺之气为主要作用。用于中气不足的体虚倦怠,食少便溏等症,常与补气健脾除湿的白术、茯苓等同用;对肺气亏虚的咳嗽气促,语声低弱等症,可与黄芪、蛤蚧等品同用,以补益肺气,止咳定喘。其补益脾肺之功与人参相似而力较弱,临床常用以代替古方中的人参,用以治疗脾肺气虚的轻证。       
 
2.气血两虚证。本品既能补气,又能补血,常用于气虚不能生血,或血虚无以化气,而见面色苍白或萎黄,乏力,头晕,心悸等症的气血两虚证。常配伍黄芪、白术、当归、熟地等品,以增强其补气补血效果。       
 
3.气津两伤证。本品对热伤气津之气短口渴,亦有补气生津作用,适用于气津两伤的轻证,宜与麦冬、五味子等养阴生津之品同用。       
 
此外,本品亦常与解表药、攻下药等祛邪药配伍,用于气虚外感或里实热结而气血亏虚等邪实正虚之证,以扶正祛邪,使攻邪而正气不伤。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,9~30g。        【使用注意】据《药典》记载,本品不宜与藜芦同用。       
 
【鉴别用药】人参与党参均具有补脾气、补肺气、益气生津、益气生血及扶正祛邪之功,均可用于脾气虚、肺气虚、津伤口渴、消渴、血虚及气虚邪实之证。但党参性味甘平,作用缓和,药力薄弱,古方用以主治以上轻症和慢性疾患者,可用党参加大用量代替,而急症、重症仍以人参为宜。但党参不具有人参益气救脱之功,凡元气虚脱之证,应以人参急救虚脱,不能以党参代替。此外,人参还长于益气助阳,安神增智,而党参则类似作用不明显。但党参兼有补血之功。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《本草从新》:“补中益气,和脾胃,除烦渴。中气微虚,用以调补,甚为平安。”       
 
 2.《本草正义》:“补脾养胃,润肺生津,健运中气,本与人参不甚相远。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含甾醇、党参苷、党参多糖、党参内酯、生物碱、无机元素、氨基酸、微量元素等。       
 
2.药理作用:党参能调节胃肠运动、抗溃疡、增强免疫功能;对兴奋和抑制两种神经过程都有影响;党参皂苷还能兴奋呼吸中枢;对动物有短暂的降压作用,但又能使晚期失血性休克家兔的血压回升;能显著升高兔血糖,其升血糖作用与所含糖分有关;能升高动物红细胞、血红蛋白、网织红细胞;还有延缓衰老、抗缺氧、抗辐射等作用。       
 
3.临床研究:用党参的甾醇提取物制成糖衣片口服,对减轻高山反应急性期症状,稳定机体内环境,改善血液循环,增强机体对低氧环境的早期适应过程等,均有明显作用(四川中医,1989,1:13);口服党参液4周后可使60%心气虚型冠心病患者心绞痛发作次数减少,症状减轻,持续时间缩短,或使心电图改善(中药药理与临床,1994,1:32);以党参30~60g水煎早晚分两次口服,在月经期连服5日,对功能性子宫出血有一定疗效(浙江中医杂志,1986,5:207)。本品还有用于高脂血症、白细胞减少症、肾性贫血、功能性子宫出血等疾病的报道。       
 
 4.不良反应:党参毒性很低,但有人报道,党参用量过大(每剂超过60g),可引起病人心前区不适和脉律不整。停药后自动恢复。临床曾报道1例党参中毒引起精神失常及失语者。

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