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Dongcongxiacao (Chinese Caterpillar Fungus)---冬虫夏草

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This medicinal is the dried stroma and sporphore of Cordyceps sinensis(Berk)Sacc. parasitized on the larva of Hepialus varians Staudinger.Both stroma and the dead larva are used medicinally. It is excavated before or after Summer Solstice when the accumulated snow still does not melt, ad dried by natural sunlight after removal of the external soil and membrane. After being softened with yellow wine and made straight, it is baked on mild fire and used in its unprocessed form.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Sweet, neutral; relate to lung and kidney meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Reinforce lung and replenish kidney; stop bleeding and resolve phlegm.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Impotence, enuresis, soreness and pain in knees and lumbus      For that due to kidney yang deficiency with insufficiency of essence and blood, it can be used alone in the form of wine infusion or in combination with Yinyanghuo and Duzhong.

2. Chronic cough, dyspnea of deficiency type, consumptive cough with bloody sputum     It is effective to treat consumptive cough with bloody sputum. For these symptoms, it is used alone or in combination with Shashen, Chuanbeimum Ejiao, Shengdihuang and Maidong. It also treats dyspnea due to deficiency of lung and kidney failing to receive qi, in combination with Renshen and Huangqi.

Besides, to treat failure of recovery due to weakness after disease, spontaneous sweating, or intolerance of cold, it is simmered with chicken, duck or pork.

[ Usage and Doage ]: 5-15 g. Also used in the form of pills or powder.

[ Precautions ] : It is not rcommended for cases with pathogens attacking the exterior.

冬虫夏草为麦角菌科植物冬虫夏草菌Cordyeps sinensis(Berk.)Sacc的子座及其寄生蝙蝠蛾科昆虫绿蝙蝠蛾Hepialus varians Staudinger幼虫的尸体的复合体。主产于四川、青海,云南、贵州,西藏、甘肃亦产。夏至前后,在积雪尚未溶化时入山采集,挖出后,在虫体潮湿未干时,除去外层泥土及膜皮,晒干;或黄酒喷使之软,整理平直,微火烘干。生用。

       【药性】甘,温。归肾、肺经。        【功效】补肾益肺,止血化痰。       
 
 【应用】        1.阳痿遗精、腰膝酸痛。本品补肾益精,有兴阳起痿之功。用治肾阳不足,精血亏虚之阳痿遗精、腰膝酸痛可单用浸酒服,或与淫羊藿、杜仲、巴朝天等补阳药配成复方用。       
 
2.久咳虚喘、劳嗽痰血。本品甘平,为平补肺肾之佳品,功能补肾益肺、止血化痰、止咳平喘,尤为劳嗽痰血多用。可单用,或与沙参、川贝母、阿胶、生地、麦冬等同用。若肺肾两虚,摄纳无权,气虚作喘者,可与人参、黄芪、胡桃肉等同用。       
 
此外,还可用于病后体虚不复或自汗畏寒,可以本品与鸡、鸭、猪肉等炖服,有补肾固本,补肺益卫之功。       
 
 【用法用量】煎服,5~15g。也可入丸、散。        【使用注意】有表邪者不宜用。       
 
【鉴别用药】蛤蚧、胡桃仁、冬虫夏草皆入肺肾善补肺益肾而定喘咳,用于肺肾        两虚之喘咳。蛤蚧补益力强,偏补肺气,尤善纳气定喘,为肺肾虚喘之要药,兼益精血;胡桃仁补益力缓,偏助肾阳,温肺寒,用于阳虚腰痛及虚寒喘咳,兼润肠通便;冬虫夏草平补肺肾阴阳,兼止血化痰,用于久咳虚喘,劳嗽痰血,为诸痨虚损调补之要药。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《本草从新》:“甘平保肺益肾,止血化痰,已劳嗽。”        2.《药性考》:“味甘性温,秘精益气,专补命门。”       
 
 【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含蛋白质氨基酸的游离氨基酸,其中多为人体必需氨基酸,还含有糖、维生素及钙、钾、铬、镍、锰、铁、铜、锌等元素。       
 
 2.药理作用:对中枢神经系统有镇静、抗惊厥、降温等作用,对体液免疫功能有增强作用,虫草的水或醇提取物可明显抑制小白鼠肉瘤等肿瘤的成长,虫草菌发酵液可对抗家兔心肌缺血的ST—T改变,虫草菌对大鼠应激性心梗也有一定的保护作用,虫草水提液对大鼠急性肾衰有明显的保护作用。      
 
  3.临床研究:以冬虫夏草煎汤连渣服用,治疗慢性肾衰患者,结果部分患者肾功能改善,尿素氮下降,血红蛋白升高(上海中医药杂志,1984,(2):11);用益肾降脂片(冬虫夏草、黄芪等)治疗慢性肾衰合并高脂血症有效(陕西中医,1990,11(6):247);用人参、蛤蚧、冬虫夏草等比例配方治疗老年慢性支气管炎并发阻塞性肺气肿有效(安徽中医学院学报,1991,10(1):22);人工虫草粉-金水宝胶囊可提高        癌症患者的细胞免疫功能,改善临床症状(中国中西医结合杂志,1995,15(8):476)。      
 
  冬虫夏草配伍沙参、太子参等对肺结核有辅助治疗作用(河南中医,1999,19(5):18)。       

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