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Doukou ( Round Cardamon Fruit )---豆蔻/白豆蔻

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Product Description

doukou-yuantai-l.jpgdoukou-yinpian-l.jpg

The source is from the ripe fruits of Amomum kravanh Pierre ex Gagnep. or Amomum compactum Soland ex Maton, family Zingiberaceae. It is collected in the autun, when the colour of fruits transforms from green into yellow and green. The crude one is dried in the sun and pounded into pieces for use.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Pungent and warm; relate to the lung, spleen and stomach meridians

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Resolve dampness, move qi; warm the middle and relieve vomiting.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: Decoction 3-6g. It should be add later to the decoction.

[ Precautions ]: It should be used carefully in yin deficiency with blood dryness.
 
[ Clinical Applications ]: 1.Rentention of dampness in the middle energizer and qi stagnation in the spleen and stomach    It is usually used together with Huoxiang, Sharen and Chenpi, etc. When it is accompanied with spleen insufficiency manifested as poor appetite an fatigue, it can be combined with Huangqi, Baizhu and Renshen, etc. For the early stage of damp-warm with preponderance of damp manifested as oppression in chest and poor appetite, it can be combined with Yiyiren and Xingren, etc., such as in Sanren Decoction. For preponderance of heat over damp, it is usually combined with Huangqin and Huashi, etc.,such as in Huangqin Huashi Decoction.
 
2.Vomiting  It is suitable for vomiting of qi stagnation due to damp obstruction and stomach cold. It can be used alone, or in combination with Huoxiang and Banxia, etc. For infantile milk regurgitation and poor appetite due to stomach cold, it can be ground in powder together with Sharen and Gancao.

[ Medicinal Comparison ]: Similarities: Doukou and Sharen both have the actions of resoving damp, moving qi, warm the middle and stop vomiting and diarrhea. For retention of dampness in the middle energizer or qi stagnation in the spleen and stomach, they are usually used altogether.
 
Differneces:Doukou tends on act on the upper and middle energizer and warm stomach, check adverse rise of qi to arrest vomiting. Sharen is superior to Doukou in the actions of resolving damp and moving qi and tends to act on the lower and middle energizer. It can warm the spleen to check diarrhea and move qi to prevent abortion as well.

[ Annotation ]: Doukou qiao : The source is from the peel of Fructus Amomi Rotundus. Its properties and actions are similar to those of Doukou. But it is mild warm and weaker than Doukou and it is suitable for retention of damp and qi stagnation manifested as epigastric and abdominal stuffiness, poor appetite and vomiting, etc. Its dosage is 3-5g.

豆蔻为姜科植物白豆蔻A. kravanh Pierre ex Gagnep. 或瓜哇白豆蔻A. compactum Soland ex Maton的干燥成熟果实。又名白豆蔻。主产于泰国、柬埔寨、越南,我国云南、广东、广西等地亦有栽培;按产地不同分为“原豆蔻”和“印尼白蔻”。于秋季果实由绿色转成黄绿色时采收,晒干生用,用时捣碎。
      
【药性】辛,温。归肺、脾、胃经。        【功效】化湿行气,温中止呕。       
 
【应用】        1.湿阻中焦及脾胃气滞证。本品可化湿行气,常与藿香、陈皮等同用;若脾虚湿阻气滞之胸腹虚胀,食少无力者,常与黄芪、白术、人参等同用,如白豆蔻丸(《圣惠方》)。另外,本品辛散入肺而宣化湿邪,故还常用于湿温初起,胸闷不饥证。若湿邪偏重者,每与薏苡仁、杏仁等同用,如三仁汤(《温病条辨》);若热重于湿者,又常与黄芩、滑石等同用,如黄芩滑石汤(《温病条辨》)。       
 
 2.呕吐。本品能行气宽中,温胃止呕。尤以胃寒湿阻气滞呕吐最为适宜。可单用为未服,或配藿香、半夏等药,如白豆蔻汤(《沈氏尊生书》)。若小儿胃寒,吐乳不食者,可与砂仁、甘草等药研细末服之。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,3~6g,入汤剂宜后下。        【使用注意】阴虚血燥者慎用。       
 
【鉴别用药】豆蔻、砂仁同为化湿药,具有化湿行气,温中止呕、止泻之功,常相须为用,用治湿阻中焦及脾胃气滞证。但豆蔻化湿行气之力偏中上焦,而砂仁偏中下焦。故豆蔻临床上可用于湿温痞闷,温中偏胃而善止呕;砂仁化湿行气力略胜,温中重在脾而善止泻。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《开宝本草》:“主积冷气,止吐逆反胃,消谷下气。”        2.《本草通玄》:“白豆蔻,其功全在芳香之气,一经火炒,便减功力;即入汤液,但当研细,乘沸点服尤妙。”       
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:含挥发油,主要成分为1,4桉叶素,α-樟脑、律草烯及其环氧化物。       
 
 2.药理作用:能促进胃液分泌,增进胃肠蠕动,制止肠内异常发酵,祛除胃肠积气,故有良好的芳香健胃作用,并能止呕。挥发油对豚鼠实验性结核,能增强小剂量链霉素作用。       
 
 3.临床研究:据报道,以白豆蔻、石菖蒲、草果仁等六味中药组成益肾降浊冲剂,治疗70例慢性肾功能衰竭(CRF)患者,显效51例,有效15例,无效4例,经治疗后Bun明显下降,消化功能紊乱明显纠正,食欲显著增进,感染有所控制,出血迅速制止,症状明显缓解,基本起到了消除毒素,排除体内代谢产物,缓解改善病情,保护残余肾脏功能,处长了CRF病人存活时间(中成药,1993,3:20)。      
 
  附药 豆蔻壳        为豆蔻的果壳。性味功效与豆蔻相似,但温性不强,力亦较弱。适用于湿阻气滞所致的脘腹痞闷,食欲不振,呕吐等。煎服,3~5g。       

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