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Fangji ( Fourstamen Stephania Root )--(汉)防己(powder100g/bottle)

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The source is from the root of Stephania tetrandra S.Morre, family Menispermaceae. It is called Hanfangji conventionally. It is dug in the autun with skin removed and dried in the sun. It is cut into thick pieces and the crude one is for use.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter , cold; relate to bladder and lung meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Expel wind, relieve pain; induce diuresis to remove edema.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 4.5- 9g.

[ Precautions ]: Careful use in poor appetite and yin deficiency. Its properties are extremely cold and bitter, are capable of damaging the stomach.

[ Annotations ]: The source is from the root of Aristolochia fangchi Y.C. Wu ex L.D. Chou et S.M.H wang, family Aristolochiaceae. It is conventionally called Guangfanji or Mufangji. Both are collectively called Fangji previously. Mufangji tends to expelling wind and relieving pain. Hangfangji tends to inducing urine to remove edema. Guangfangji is not recomended to use in Pharmacopeia of PRC in 2005 because aristolochicsour in Mufangji can induce renal failure.
[ Clinical Applications ]:1. Bi-syndrome of wind-dampness     It is suitable for bi-syndrome with damp-heat predominant and it is usually in combination with Huashi, Yiyiren, Chansha and and Zhizi, etc.,such as in Xuanbi Decoction. For pain due to bi with cold-damp, it is in comination with such medicinals with actions of wraming and dredging meridians to expel cold as Chuanwu and Guizhi.
 
2. Edema and barbiers    It is good at releasing damp-heat in the lower energizer and it is in combination with such medicinals with actions of tonifying qi and strengthening the spleen as Huangqi and Baizhu, such as in Fangji Huangqi Decoction. For abdominal distending sensation and edema of damp-heat, it is usually used together with Jiaomu, Tinglizi and Dahuang, such as in Jijiao Lihuang Pill.
 
In addition, it can be used to treat eczema and sore together with Kushen and Jinyinhua, etc.

防己为防己科植物粉防己Stephania tetrandra S.Moore及马兜铃科植物广防己Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D.Chou et S.M.Hwang的干燥根。前者习称“汉防己”,主产于安徽、浙江、江西、福建等地;后者习称“木防己”,主产于广东、广西、云南等地。秋季采挖,洗净,除去粗皮,切段,粗根纵切两半,晒干。切厚片,生用。
      
【药性】苦、辛,寒。归膀胱、肺经。       
 
【功效】袪风湿,止痛,利水消肿。       
 
【应用】        1.风湿痹证。本品辛能行散,苦寒降泄,既能袪风除湿止痛,又能清热。对风湿痹证湿热偏盛,肢体酸重,关节红肿疼痛,及湿热身痛者,尤为要药,常与滑石、薏苡仁、蚕沙、栀子等配伍,如宣痹汤(《温病条辨》);若与麻黄、肉桂、茯苓等同用,亦可用于风寒湿痹,四肢挛急者,如防己饮(《圣济总录》)       
 
2.水肿,小便不利,脚气。本品苦寒降利,能清热利水,善走下行而泄下焦膀胱湿热,尤宜于下肢水肿,小便不利者。常与黄芪、白术、甘草等配伍,用于风水脉浮,身重汗出恶风者,如防己黄芪汤(《金匮要略》);若与茯苓、黄芪、桂枝等同用,可治一身悉肿,小便短少者,如防己茯苓汤(《金匮要略》);与椒目、葶苈子、大黄合用,又治湿热腹胀水肿,即己椒苈黄丸(《金匮要略》)。治脚气足胫肿痛、重着、麻木,可与吴茱萸、槟榔、木瓜等同用;《本草切要》治脚气肿痛,则配木瓜、牛膝、桂枝、枳壳煎服。      
 
  3.湿疹疮毒。本品苦以燥湿,寒以清热,治湿疹疮毒,可与苦参、金银花等配伍。        此外,本品有降血压作用,可用于高血压病。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,4.5~9g。        【使用注意】本品大苦大寒易伤胃气,胃纳不佳及阴虚体弱者慎服。       
 
【鉴别用药】汉防己与木防己均有袪风湿、利水之功。但汉防己偏于利水消肿,木防己偏于袪风湿止痛;若症偏于下部,湿重于风者,多用汉防己;症偏于上部,风重于湿者,多用木防己。        【古籍摘要】        1.《名医别录》:“疗水肿,风肿,去膀胱热,伤寒,寒热邪气,中风手足挛急……通腠理,利九窍。”       
 
2.《本草拾遗》:“汉(防己)主水气,木(防己)主风气,宣通。”       
 
3.《本草求真》:“防己,辛苦大寒,性险而健,善走下行,长于除湿、通窍、利道,能泻下焦血分湿热,及疗风水要药。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:汉防己(粉防己)含粉防己碱(即汉防己甲素),防己诺灵碱,轮环藤酚碱,氧防己碱,防己斯任碱,小檗胺,2,2’-N,N-二氯甲基粉防己碱,粉防己碱A、B、C、D。       
木防己(广防己)含马兜铃酸,木兰花碱,尿囊素,马兜铃内酰胺,β-谷甾醇等。       
 
 2.药理作用:粉防己能明显增加排尿量。总碱及流浸膏或煎剂有镇痛作用。粉防己碱有抗炎作用;对心肌有保护作用,能扩张冠状血管,增加冠脉流量,有显著降压作用,能对抗心律失常;能明显抑制血小板聚集,还能促进纤维蛋白溶解,抑制凝血酶引起的血液凝固过程;对实验性矽肺有预防治疗作用;对子宫收缩有明显的松弛作用;低浓度的粉防己碱可使肠张力增加,节律性收缩加强,高浓度则降低张力减弱节律性收缩;有抗菌和抗阿米巴原虫的作用;可使正常大鼠血糖明显降低,血清胰岛素明显升高;有一定抗肿瘤作用;对免疫有抑制作用;有广泛的抗过敏作用。        广防己能提高非特异性免疫力,使腹腔巨噬细胞的吞噬功能增强;所含的马兜铃酸对金黄色葡萄球菌有抑制作用;所含木兰花碱能显著降低血压,舒张压下降尤为明显。       
 
3.临床研究:用汉防己甲素静脉注射,每次120~180mg,每日2次,或口服,治疗高血压病270例,显效52.6%,一般疗效31.5%(中华内科杂志,1965,6:504);又静注2~3mg/kg,每日2次,治疗心绞痛20例,有效率90%(中华内科杂志,1985,11:682);用汉防己甲素治疗慢性肝病纤维化73例,总有效率62.6%(临床消化病杂志,1994,1:38)。又汉防己甲素可治疗室上性心动过速、支气管哮喘、喘息型支气管炎。       
 
4.不良反应:国外报道,有人因长期服用含防己的减肥药而导致肾毒(主要为马兜铃酸,有关马兜铃酸的毒性参见关木通)。

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