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FulingPI ( Poria )---茯苓

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 Fuling Pi: It is the black scarfskin of he scleroticum of Poria cocos ( Schw.) Wolf, family Polyporaceae. Its properties are the same like fuling, and it has the efficacyto promote diuresis in order to relieve edema. It is often used to treat edema and dysuria. 10-15g is utilized orally.
 
FU LING,It is the dried sclerotium of Poria cocos ( Schw.) Wolf, family Polyporaceae. Fuling produced in Yunnan Province is called " Yunling". It is of superior quality. It is mainly harvested and collected between July and September. After the earth is removed , it is piled repeatedly to sweat out, then it is dried in the sunshine. Afterward, it is cut into small block size pieces, or thick slices, and dried in the shade. The raw form is utilized for medicine.

[ Medicinal Proerties ]: Sweet, bland and neutral; relate to the heart, lung, spleen and kidney meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Promote diuresis to drain dampness; invigorate the spleen and sedate the mind.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 9-15g, utilized orally. For sedation purposes, it is often mixed with Zhusha.

[ Annotations ]:
Fu shen: It is from the scleraotium naturally parasitized on the root of pine trees. It has the efficacy to calm the heart and sedate the mind. It is often used for palpitation, insomnia and amnesia. 10-15g is utilized orally.
 
[ Clinical Application ]: 1. Dysury, edema      Due to its medicinal property beinng neutral, it can promote diuresis; however, it is not harmful to yin fluids. It is the principle medicinal to induce diuresis and drain dampness. It can be used to teat any kind of edema, whether it is due to cold or heat, as well as, deficiency  or excess. It is often combined with Zhuling, Baizhu, Zexie, such as in the formula Wuling Powder. In case of edema due to Yang-deficiency of the spleen-kidney, it is combined with Fuzi, Baizhu, Shengjiang, such as in the formula Zhewu Decoction. If the edema is due to the accumulation of dampess and heat, it should be combined with Zhuling and Zexie, such as in the formula Zhuling Decoction.
 
2. All syndromes of spleen deficiency      For spleen deficiency syndromes manifesting as poor appetite, loose stool and lassitude, it is often combined with Dangshen, Baizhu , Gancao, such as in the formula Sijunzi Decoction. In case of diarrhea, leucorrhea which are due to spleen deficiency, it is combined with Dangshen, Baizhu and Shanyao, such as in the forula Shenling Baizhu Powder. For dizziness or palpitation, due to spleen-deficiency and fluid-retention, it is used together with Guizhi, Baizhu and Gancao, such as in the formula Ling Gui Zhu Gan Decoction.
 
3. Palpitation, insomnia    For palpitation, insomnia, poor memory, due to deficiency of heart and spleen, defiency of qi and blood, it is often combined with Dangshen, Yuanzhi, Suanzaoren, such as in formula Guipi Pill.
 
1.茯苓皮 为茯苓菌核的黑色外皮。性能同茯苓。功效利水消肿。应用长于行皮肤水湿,多治皮肤水肿。用量15~30g。

茯苓为多孔菌科真菌茯苓Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf的干燥菌核。寄生于松科植物赤松或马尾松等树根上。野生或栽培,主产于云南、安徽、湖北、河南、四川等地。产云南者称“云苓”,质较优。多于7~9月采挖。挖出后除去泥沙,堆置“发汗”后,摊开晾至表面干燥,再“发汗”,反复数次至现皱纹、内部水分大部散失后,阴干,称为“茯苓个” 。取之浸润后稍蒸,及时切片,晒干;或将鲜茯苓按不同部位切制,阴干,生用。
      
【药性】甘、淡,平。归心、脾、肾经。        【功效】利水消肿,渗湿,健脾,宁心。       
 
【应用】        1.水肿。本品味甘而淡,甘则能补,淡则能渗,药性平和,既可祛邪,又可扶正,利水而不伤正气,实为利水消肿之要药。可用治寒热虚实各种水肿。治疗水湿内停所致之水肿、小便不利,常与泽泻、猪苓、白术、桂枝等同用,如五苓散(《伤寒论》);治脾肾阳虚水肿,可与附子、生姜同用,如真武汤(《伤寒论》);用于水热互结,阴虚小便不利水肿,与滑石、阿胶、泽泻合用,如猪苓汤(《伤寒论》)。       
 
2.痰饮。本品善渗泄水湿,使湿无所聚,痰无由生,可治痰饮之目眩心悸,配以桂枝、白术、甘草同用,如苓桂术甘汤(《金匮要略》);若饮停于胃而呕吐者,多和半夏、生姜合用,如小半夏加茯苓汤(《金匮要略》)。       
 
 3.脾虚泄泻。本品能健脾渗湿而止泻,尤宜于脾虚湿盛泄泻,可与山药、白术、薏苡仁同用,如参苓白术散(《和剂局方》); 茯苓味甘,善入脾经,能健脾补中,常配以人参、白术、甘草,治疗脾胃虚弱,倦怠乏力,食少便溏,如四君子汤(《和剂局方》)。       
 
 4.心悸,失眠。本品益心脾而宁心安神。常用治心脾两虚,气血不足之心悸,失眠,健忘,多与黄芪、当归、远志同用,如归脾汤(《济生方》);若心气虚,不能藏神,惊恐而不安卧者,常与人参、龙齿、远志同用,如安神定志丸(《医学心悟》)。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,9~15g。        【使用注意】虚寒精滑者忌服。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主胸胁逆气,忧恚惊邪恐悸,心下结痛,寒热,烦满,咳逆,口焦舌干,利小便。久服安魂、养神、不饥、延年。”        2.《世补斋医书》:“茯苓一味,为治痰主药,痰之本,水也,茯苓可以行水。痰之动,湿也,茯苓又可行湿。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含β- 茯苓聚糖,占干重约93 %,另含茯苓酸、蛋白质、脂肪、卵磷脂、胆碱、组氨酸、麦角甾醇等。       
 
2.药理作用:茯苓煎剂、糖浆剂、醇提取物、乙醚提取物,分别具有利尿、镇静、抗肿瘤、降血糖、增加心肌收缩力的作用。茯苓多糖有增强免疫功能的作用。茯苓有护肝作用,能降低胃液分泌、对胃溃疡有抑制作用。       
 
 3.临床研究:据报道,将茯苓和葱白捣碎敷于气海和关元穴上 ,上盖热水袋。治疗组产后尿潴留,疗效显著(菏泽医专学报2000,3:101)。用甲羧基茯苓多糖,肌注,治疗肝炎,有良效(中草药,1985, 4:43)。 另外,甲羧基茯苓多糖单独使用,或配合手术治疗、化疗、放疗,治各种恶性肿瘤,有增强体质,改善症状,减少放、化疗副作用,保护骨髓,改善肝、肾功能的效果(中西医结合杂志.1985,2:115)。
 
茯苓还可用治斑秃、小儿秋季腹泻、内耳眩晕症,精神分裂症等。       
 
 附药 茯苓皮 茯神        1.茯苓皮 为茯苓菌核的黑色外皮。性能同茯苓。功效利水消肿。应用长于行皮肤水湿,多治皮肤水肿。用量15~30g。       
                               2.茯神 为茯苓菌核中间带有松根的部分。性能同茯苓。功效宁心安神,应用专治心神不安、惊悸、健忘等。用量同茯苓。

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