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Guanzhong ( Shield-fern)---贯众(powder100g/bottle)

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Product Description

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Guanzhong is the dried rhizome with petiole base of Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai, pertaining to Dryopteridaceae. It is collected in fall. After the petiole base and fibrous root are removed, it is sun dried. The raw for is used or afer stir-baked to charcoal.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter and slightly cold. Slightly toxic; relate to liver and stomach meridians..

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Clear heat, relieve toxicity; cool blood and stop bleeding; kill worms.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 4.5-9g. It is stir-baked to charcoal to stop bleeding. Also it is used externally.

[ Precautions ]: For it is slightly toxic, avoid using in large dosage. Be cautious with deficiency-cold of spleen and stomach or pregnant woman.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. External contraction of wind-heat, warm toxinosis and toxin      By itself, it treats external contraction of wind-heat or combined with Sangye and Jinyinhua. Also it treats mumps, macula and rash, combined with Banlangen, Daqingye and Zicao.

2. Blood heat and  bleeding    It treats various bleeding due to blood heat such as epistaxic, heametemesis hematiochezia, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis, especially good at metrorhagia and metrostaxis. By itself it treats epistaxis by pounded into powder. For hematochezia, it is combined with Cebaiye. And for metrorrhagia and etrostaxis, it is combined with Wulingzhi.

3. Helminthic accumulation and abdominal pain    It can kill various interstinal parasites such as tapeworm, hookworm, threadworm and roundworm, usually combined with other vermifugal medicinal.

贯众为鳞毛蕨科植物粗茎鳞毛蕨Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai 的带叶柄基部的干燥根茎。主产于黑龙江、吉林、辽宁三省山区,习称“东北贯众”或“绵马贯众”。秋季采挖,洗净,除去叶柄及须根,晒干。 切片生用或炒炭用。

【药性】苦,微寒。有小毒。归肝、脾经。      
 
【功效】清热解毒,凉血止血,杀虫。       
 
【应用】        1.风热感冒,温毒发斑。本品苦寒,既能清气分之实热,又能解血分之热毒,凡温热毒邪所致之证皆可用之,常与黄连、甘草等同用,如贯众散(《普济方》)。单用本品或配桑叶、金银花等可防治风热感冒;若与板蓝根、大青叶、紫草等药配伍,又可用于痄腮、温毒发斑、发疹等病证。      
 
  2.血热出血。本品味苦微寒,主入肝经,有凉血止血之功,主治血热所致之衄血、吐血、便血、崩漏等证,尤善治崩漏下血。如《本草图经》治衄血,可单味药研未调服;若与黄连为伍,研末糯米饮调服,可治吐血,如贯众散(《圣济总录》);治便血可配伍侧柏叶;治崩漏下血可与五灵脂同用。       
 
3.虫疾。本品有杀虫之功。用于驱杀绦虫、钩虫、蛲虫、蛔虫等多种肠道寄生虫。可与驱虫药配伍使用。       
 此外,本品还可用于治疗烧烫伤及妇人带下等病证。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,4.5~9g。杀虫及清热解毒宜生用;止血宜炒炭用。外用适量。       
 
【使用注意】本品有小毒,用量不宜过大。服用本品时忌油腻。脾胃虚寒者及孕妇慎用。       
 
 【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主腹中邪热气,诸毒,杀三虫。”        2.《名医别录》:”去寸白,破癥瘕,除头风、止金疮。”        3.《本草纲目》:“治下血、崩中、带下,产后血气胀痛,斑疹、漆毒、骨哽。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品主要含绵马素、三叉蕨酚、黄三叉蕨酸、绵马次酸、挥发油、绵马鞣质等。       
 
2.药理作用:本品所含绵马酸、黄绵马酸有较强的驱虫作用,对绦虫有强烈毒性,可使绦虫麻痹而排出,也有驱除绦虫、蛔虫等寄生虫的作用。实验证明本品可强烈抑制流感病毒,对腺病毒、脊髓灰质炎病毒、乙脑病毒等亦有较强的抗病毒作用。外用有止血、镇痛、消炎作用。其煎剂及提取物对家兔子宫有显著的兴奋作用。绵马素有毒,能麻痹随意肌、对胃肠道有刺激,引起视网膜血管痉挛及伤害视神经,中毒时引起中枢神经系统障碍,见震颤、惊厥乃至延脑麻痹。绵马素一般在肠道不吸收,但肠中有过多脂肪时,可促进吸收而至中毒。       
 
3.临床研究:据临床报道,贯众对多种病毒感染性疾病有较好疗效,广泛用于感冒、流行性感冒及上呼吸道感染的预防及治疗。贯众又用于其他多种疾病,如:用贯众、玉米须、白茅根各30g,水煎服治疗乳糜尿35例,总有效率为91.4%(中医杂志1995,5:276);用贯众30g、穿山甲12g、珍珠末6g、冰片3g等共研细末,外用撒于患处,治疗婴幼儿脐炎121例,全部有效(新中医1997,1:21);用贯众为主配伍萆薢、党参、鸡血藤水煎服,治疗慢性铅中毒11例,全部有效(中药临床新用2001:434)。
此外,还可用于胆道蛔虫症、急性睾丸炎,上消化道出血、药物性肝炎及妇科出血等。       
 
4.不良反应:粗茎鳞毛蕨根茎所含多种间苯三酚衍生物有一定毒性。绵马酸主要作用于消化系统和中枢神经系统,大剂量时可损害视神经,引起失明,大脑白质也可受损。中毒的主要表现为:轻者头痛,头晕,腹泻,腹痛,呼吸困难,黄视或短暂失明,重者有谵妄、昏迷、黄疸、肾功能损伤;最后四肢强直,阵发性惊厥,终因呼吸衰竭而死亡。中毒后恢复缓慢,可造成永久性失明。本品中毒原因主要是用量过大,其次是临床用药前未经品种鉴定,误用毒性大的贯众,或没有掌握应用宜忌等。本品中毒救治的主要方法是对症治疗。如服用盐类泻药,以促进肠道内的毒物排出;但禁用油类泻剂如蓖麻油等;发生惊厥时,可静脉注射巴比妥盐类控制之;出现呼吸困难时,可给氧,用呼吸兴奋剂,或采用人工呼吸;输液以补偿因呕吐或腹泻而丢失的体液和电解质;服通用解毒剂也有一定效果。预防中毒应注意剂量,尤其小儿用于驱虫时,应按公斤体重计算;孕妇、体质虚弱、肝肾功能不全、消化道溃疡者禁用;因其品种复杂,毒性不一,故应进行品种鉴定以防中毒;另外脂肪可加速有毒成分的吸收而使毒性增大,服用本品时忌油腻。       
 
【其他】贯众的品种历代复杂,《中国药典》2005年版规定以上品为正品。另外,紫萁科植物紫萁Osmunda japonica Thunb.,球子蕨科植物荚果蕨Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro。,乌毛蕨科植物乌毛蕨Blechnum orientaieL,狗脊蕨Woodwardia japonica (L.f.)Sm.,苏铁蕨Brainea insignis(Hook.)J.Sm,蹄盖蕨科植物蛾眉蕨Lunathyrium acrostichoides(Sw.)Ching等的带叶柄残基的根茎在不同地区亦作贯众入药。       

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