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Heshouwu (Fleeceflower Root)---何首乌

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 This medicinal is the dried root tuber of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.(Fam.Polygonaceae). It is excavated in autumn when the leaves get withered or the next year when it buds. After removal of its two ends, it is washed clean, sliced and dried or slightly baked. This is called unprepared Shouwu. The unprepared Shouwu is steamed in mixture with black soybean juice and dried till the root becomes black, and prepared Shouwu is obtained.

[ Medicinal properties ]: Bitter, sweet and astringent ,warm; relate to liver and kidney meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: The prepared medicinal:Tonify the liver and kidney ; replenish essence and blood; blacken hairs; strengthen tendons and bones.

The unprepared medicinal: Relieve toxicity. Cure abscess; moisten bowels to relieve constipation.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Dizziness, blurred vision, early graying of hair, limpness of the loins and knees, spermatorrhea and leuhorrhea due to deficiency of essence and blood     In combination with Danggui, Gouqizi , as in the Qibao Meiran Dan, it treats limpness of the loins and knees, dizziness, blurred vision, early graying of hair due to deficiency of essence and blood and sterility due to kidney deficiency. For limpness of the loins and knees , dizziness, tinnitus and deafness due to deficiency of liver and kidney, it is combined with Sangshenzi, black sesame and Duzhong.

2. Chronic malaria, scrofula, abscesses, constipation due to intestinal dryness    It treats scrofula, abscesses and pruritus in combination with Xiakucao and Danggui. For sores, swellings , itching and pains all over the body, it is decocted with Fangfeng and Kushen into lotion for external application. For the elderly with constipation due to blood deficiency and intestinal dryness, it is combined with Roucongrong and Danggui. To treat chronic malaria with deficiency of both qi and blood, it is combined with Renshen, Danggui and Chenpi, as in the Heren Decoction.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 10-30g.

[ Precautions ]: It is not recommended for loose stool and excess of dampness-phlegm.

何首乌为蓼科植物何首乌Polygonum multiflorum Thuna.的块根。我国大部分地区有出产。秋后茎叶枯萎时或次年未萌芽前掘取其块根。削去两端,洗净,切片,晒干或微烘,称生首乌;若以黑豆煮汁拌蒸,晒后变为黑色,称制首乌。

       【药性】苦、甘、涩,微温。归肝、肾经。        【功效】制用:补益精血。生用:解毒,截疟,润肠通便。       
 
【应用】        1.精血亏虚、头晕眼花、须发早白、腰膝酸软、遗精、崩带。制首乌功善补肝肾、益精血、乌须发,治血虚萎黄,失眠健忘,常与熟地黄、当归、酸枣仁等同用。与当归、枸杞子、菟丝子等同用,治精血亏虚,腰酸脚弱、头晕眼花、须发早白及肾虚无子如七宝美髯丹(《积善堂方》);亦常配伍桑椹子、黑芝麻、杜仲等,用治肝肾亏虚,腰膝酸软,头晕目花,耳鸣耳聋,如首延寿丹(《世补斋医书》)。        2.久疟、痈疽、瘰疬、肠燥便秘等。生首乌有截疟、解毒、润肠通便之效,若疟疾日久,气血虚弱,可用生首乌与人参、当归、陈皮、煨姜同用,如何人饮(《景岳全书》);若瘰疬痈疮、皮肤瘙痒,可配伍夏枯草、土贝母、当归等药(《本草汇言》);也可与防风、苦参、薄荷同用煎汤洗,治遍身疮肿痒痛,如何首乌散(《外科精要》);若年老体弱之人血虚肠燥便秘,可润肠通便,与肉苁蓉、当归、火麻仁等同用。        【用法用量】煎服,10~30g。       
 
【使用注意】大便溏泄及湿痰较重者不宜用。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《日华子本草》;“味甘久服令人有子,治腹藏宿疾,一切冷气及肠风。”       
 
2.《开宝本草》:“主瘰疬,消痈肿,疗头面风疮,五痔,止心痛,益血气,黑髭鬓,悦颜色,久服长筋骨,益精髓,延年不老;亦治妇人产后及带下诸疾。”       
 
3.《本草纲目》:“能养血益肝,固精益肾,健筋骨,乌髭发,为滋补良药,不寒不燥,功在地黄、天冬诸药之上。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:主要含蒽醌类化合物,主要成分为大黄酚和大黄素,还含卵磷脂、粗脂肪等。       
 
 2.药理作用:用含有0.4%、2%首乌粉的饲料给老年鹌鹑喂饲,能明显延长其平均生存时间,延长寿命。何首乌水煎液给老年小鼠和青年小鼠喂服,能显著增加脑和肝中蛋白质含量;对脑和肝组织中的B型单胺氧化酶活性有显著抑制作用,并能使老年小鼠的胸腺不致萎缩,甚至保持年轻的水平。能显著增加小鼠胸腺、腹腔淋巴结、肾上腺的重量,使脾脏有增重趋势。同时还能增加正常白细胞总数、对抗强的松龙免疫抑制作用及所致白细胞下降作用。家兔急性高脂血症模型实验表明,首乌能使其血中的高胆固醇较快下降至正常水平。首乌中提出的大黄酚能促进肠管运动。      
 
  3.临床研究:首乌片治疗高胆固醇血症有较好疗效(医药工业,1972,(7):23)。首乌冲剂治疗早期肾脏损害血瘀型高血压有效(中国药房,1993,4(4):36)。制首乌、熟地黄、当归浸于粮食白酒中治疗白发有效(山东中医杂志,1983,(4):41)

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