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Huangbo (Amur Cork-tree /Cortex Phellodendri)---黄柏(本)

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Product Description

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Huangbo is the dried bark of Phellodendron Chinense Schneid. or Phellodendron amnrense Rupr., pertaining to Rutaceae. The former is knowns as "Chuan Huangbo", and the latter is "Guan Huangbo". At Clear and Bright Season, the bark is peeled, and the coarse part is removed. After sun dried, it is thoroughly moistened, and then cut into slices or threads. The raw form is used, or it is used after stir-baked with salt-water, or stir-baked to charcoal.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter and cold; relate to kidney and bladder meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Clear heat, dry dampness; purge fire, remove bone-steaming; relieve toxicity and cure sores.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-12 g. Also it can be used externally.

[ Precautions ]: Extremely bitter and cold, it tends to damage stomach qi, so avoid with deficiency-cold of spleen and stomach.
 
[ clinical Applications ]: 1. Damp-heat, dysentery, jaundice, leucorrhea and heat stranguria    Huangbo is good at purging damp-heat in the lower energizer. It treats dysentery, usually combined with Baitouweng, Huanglian and Qinpi; for example in Baitouweng Decotion. In case of jaundice due to accumulation of damp-heat, it is combined with Zhizi; for example in Zhizi Bopi Decoction. For yellowish, greasy and stink leucorrhea due to down-pour of damp-heat, it is combined with Shanyao, Qianshi and Cheqianzi; for example in Yinhuang Decoction. Also for scanty, yellowish and hot urine with pain due to down-pour of damp-heat into bladder, it is used together with Bixie, Fuling and Cheqianzi; for example in Bixie Fenging Decoction.
 
2. Sores, ulcers,swelling, toxin, eczema, itching, damp-heat and feet flaccidity     In case of sores, ulcers, swelling and toxin by internal or external administration, it is combined with Huangqin, Huanglian and Zhizi; for examople in Huanglian Jiedu Decoction. For eczema with itching, it is used with Jiangjie, Kushen and Baixianpi. Also for swelling of feet and knees with pain due to down-pour of damp-heat, it is used with Cangzhu, Niuxi; for example in Sanmiao Pills.
 
3. Yin deficiency, fever, bone-steaming, night sweats and seminal emission     It is good at removing deficiency-fire and suppressing ministerial fire. For yin deficiency with effulgent fire, manifesting as tidal fever, night sweats, lumbar soreness, seminal emission, it is often combined with Zhimu in mutual reinforcement, and with other yin-nourishing medicinals such as Shengdi and Guijia, to nourish kidney yin and purge ministerial fire; for example in ZhibaiDihuang Pills.
 
[ Medicinal Comparison ]: Similarities: Huangqin , Huanglian and Huangbo, all can clear heat, dry dampness, purge fire and relieve toxicity, so often treat damp-heat or fire-toxin.
Differences: Huangqin is agood at clear pathogeic heat in the upper energizer, especially the lung heat, as well as cooling blood, stopping bleeding and preventing threatened abortion, to treat bleeding due to blood heat and threatened abortion due to fetal heat.  Huanglian is strong at clearing heat, drying dampness, purging fire and relieving toxicity, and good at purging pathogenic heat in middle energizer, especially heart fire and stomach ifire, so is the common medicinal to treat heart fire and stomach fire, and good at symptoms such as stuffiness and fullness, vomiting and belching due to damp-heat in middle energizer, high fever and agitation due to prosperous heart fire.  Huangbo is good at clearing pathogenic heat in lower energizer, usually to treat damp-heat in lower energizer, and remove deficiency-fire to treat fever due to yin deficiency.

黄柏为芸香科植物黄皮树Phellodendron chinense Schneid. 或黄檗P. amurense Rupr.的干燥树皮。前者习称“川黄柏”,后者习称“关黄柏”。川黄柏主产于四川、贵州、湖北、云南等地,关黄柏主产于辽宁、吉林、河北等地。清明之后剥取树皮,除去粗皮、晒干压平;润透,切片或切丝。生用或盐水炙、炒炭用。
      
【药性】苦,寒。归肾、膀胱、大肠经。       
 
【功效】清热燥湿,泻火除蒸,解毒疗疮。       
 
【应用】        1.湿热带下、热淋。本品苦寒沉降,长于清泻下焦湿热。用治湿热下注之带下黄浊臭秽,常配山药、芡实、车前子等药用,如易黄汤(《傅青主女科》);若治湿热下注膀胱,小便短赤热痛,常配萆薢、茯苓、车前子等药用,如萆薢分清饮(《医学心悟》)。       
 
 2.湿热泻痢、黄疸。本品清热燥湿之中,善除大肠湿热以治泻痢,常配白头翁、黄连、秦皮等药用,如白头翁汤(《伤寒论》);若配栀子用,可治湿热郁蒸之黄疸,如栀子柏皮汤(《伤寒论》)。       
 
3.湿热脚气、痿证:取本品清泄下焦湿热之功,用治湿热下注所致脚气肿痛、痿证,常配苍术、牛膝用,如三妙丸(《医学心悟》)。若配知母、熟地、龟甲等药用,可治阴虚火旺之痿证,如虎潜丸(《丹溪心法》)。      
 
  4.骨蒸劳热,盗汗,遗精。本品主入肾经而善泻相火、退骨蒸,用治阴虚火旺,潮热盗汗、腰酸遗精,常与知母相须为用,并配生地黄、山药等药用,如知柏地黄丸(《医宗金鉴》);或配熟地黄、龟甲用,如大补阴丸(《丹溪心法》)。      
 
  5.疮疡肿毒、湿疹瘙痒。取本品既能清热燥湿,又能泻火解毒,用治疮疡肿毒,内服外用均可,如黄连解毒汤(《外台秘要》)以本品配黄芩、黄连、栀子煎服,又如二黄散(《痈疽神验秘方》)以本品配大黄为末,醋调外搽;治湿疹瘙痒,可配荆芥、苦参、白鲜皮等煎服;亦可配煅石膏等分为末,外撒或油调搽患处,如石黄散(《青囊秘传》)。       
 
 【用法用量】煎服,3-12g。外用适量。       
 
【鉴别用药】黄芩、黄连、黄柏三药性味皆苦寒,而黄连为苦寒之最。三药均以清热燥湿、泻火解毒为主要功效,用治湿热内盛或热毒炽盛之证,常相须为用。但黄芩偏泻上焦肺火,肺热咳嗽者多用;黄连偏泻中焦胃火,并长于泻心火,中焦湿热、痞满呕逆及心火亢旺、高热心烦者多用;黄柏偏泻下焦相火、除骨蒸,湿热下注诸证及骨蒸劳热者多用。       
 
【古籍摘录】        1.《神农本草经》:“主五脏肠胃中结热,黄疸,肠痔,止泄利,女子漏下赤白,阴伤蚀疮。”       
 2.《珍珠囊》:“黄柏之用有六:泻膀胱龙火,一也;利小便结,二也;除下焦湿肿,三也;痢疾先见血,四也;脐中痛,五也;补肾不足,壮骨髓,六也。”       
 3.《长沙药解》:“黄柏,泄己土之湿热,清乙木之郁蒸,调热利下重,理黄疸、腹满、伤寒。”       
 
【使用注意】本品苦寒伤胃,脾胃虚寒者忌用。       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成份:黄柏树皮含有小檗碱、黄柏碱、木兰花碱、药根碱、掌叶防已碱等多种生物碱,并含黄柏内酯、黄柏酮、黄柏酮酸及7-脱氢豆甾醇、β-谷甾醇、菜油甾醇等;黄皮树树皮含小檗碱、木兰花碱、黄柏碱、掌叶防己碱等多种生物碱及内酯、甾醇等。
2.药理作用:本品具有与黄连相似的抗病原微生物作用,对痢疾杆菌、伤寒杆菌、结核杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、溶血性链球菌等多种致病细菌均有抑制作用;对某些皮肤真菌、钩端螺旋体、乙肝表面抗原也有抑制作用;所含药根碱具有与小檗碱相似的正性肌力和抗心律失常作用;黄柏提取物有降压、抗溃疡、镇静、肌松、降血糖及促进小鼠抗体生成等作用。       
 3.临床研究:结合传统用本品治疗湿热泻痢的经验,现代临床常用以治疗急、慢性细菌性痢疾、慢性结肠炎等疾病;在疮面用双氧水及生理盐水清洗后,以开水调二黄粉(黄柏、大黄各等分为末)敷患处,至红肿消散,新肉长平后,撒上珍珠散,治疗下肢溃疡36例,治愈29例,显效6例(黑龙江中医药,1990,5:40);用黄柏、玄明粉,煎水,温敷局部,治脸部隐翅虫皮炎34例,治疗3天后皮损消失而渐愈(安徽中医学院学报,1988,2:26);用重用黄柏配伍苍术、木防己、土茯苓、王不留行等药的加味二妙散治疗难治性淋球菌性慢性前列腺炎47例,痊愈36例,显效6例,好转5例(四川中医,2000,12:25);
此外,本品及其制剂或以其为主配合其他药物,还广泛用于治疗前列腺炎、支气管炎、脓疱疮、带状疱疹、咽炎、中耳炎、流行性脑脊髓膜炎等疾病。       

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