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Huanglian ( Golden Thread / Rhizoma Coptidis)---黄连(川)(powder100g/bottle)

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Huanglian is the dried rhizome of Coptis Chinensis Franch,Coptis deltoidea C.Y.Cheng et Hsiao or Coptis teeta Wall., pertaining to Ranunculaceae. Those are called as Weiilian;Yalian and Yunlian, respectively.Huanglian from Sichuan and Yunnan Province is of the best quality and large product. It is collected in fall. After fibrous root, earth and sands are removed, it is dried. The raw form is used, or it can be usede after stir-bake, stir-baked with ginger juice, sitr-baked with wine, or stir-baked with Wuzhuyu solution.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter and cold; relate to heart, stomach, gallbladder and large intestine meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Clear heat, dry dampness; purge fire and relieve toxicity.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 2-5 g; Also it can be used externally.

[ Precautions ]: Extremely cold and bitter, overdue or long time administration tends to damage spleen and stomach. As a result, be cautious with vomiting due to stomach cold or diarrhea due to spleen insufficiency.
 
[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Damp-heat in spleen and intestines, diarrhea, dysentery, vomiting and acid regurgitation    Huanglian is the most significant medicinal to treat dysentery, and can be effective just in single. It treats dysentery due to damp-heat with tenesmus, combined with Muxiang, in Xianglian Pills. In case of dysentery due to danp-heat with fever due to exterior syndrome, it is combined with Gegen and Huangqin, such as in Gegen Qinlian Decoction. Combined with Huangqin, Ganjiang and Banxia, it treats damp-heat blocking middle energizer, disturbance of qi movement with symptoms such as stuffness and fullness in stomach and abdomen, nausea and vomiting; for example i Banxia Xiexin Decoction. Combined with Wuzhuyu, it treats invasion of stomach by liver fire manifesting as hypochondriac distending pain, vomiting and acid regurgitation; for example in Zuojin Pills.
 
2. High fever,coma. agitation, insomnia, blood heat, hematemesis, and epistaxis    it is good at purging excessive fire of heart meridian. For prosperous heat in triple energizer manifesting as high fever and agitation, it is combined with Huangqin, Huangbo and Zhizi. For prosperous heat damaging yin, agitation and insomnia, it is combined with Huangqin, Baishao and Ejiao. Also it can treat hematemesis and epistaxis due to prosperous internal pathogenic fire causing accelerated blood circulation, in combination with Dahuang and Luhui; for example in Xiexin Decoction.
 
3. Abscess, sores,eczema, swelling ears and eyes with pain    It is excellent at treating deep-rooted boil. In case of abscess and deep-rooted boil , it is usually combined with Huangqin, Huangbo and Zhizi; for example in Huanglian Jiedu Decoction. For up-stirring of stomach fire causing intolerable toothache, it is used together with Shengdihuang, Shengma and Mudanpi; for example in Qingwei Powder. It is ground into powder or its extract is externally pasted to treat swelling and pain of ears and eyes.
 
4. Blazing of stomach fire, agitation, fever and Xiaoke ( diabetes)     It is good at clearing stomach fire. For Xiaoke (diabetes) due to prosperous stomach fire, manifesting as insatiable appetite, usually it is combined with Tianhuafen and Shengdihuang.

黄连为毛茛科植物黄连Coptis chinensis Franch.、三角叶黄连C. deltoidea C.Y.Cheng et Hsiao或云连C. teeta Wall.的干燥根茎。以上三种分别可称为“味连”、“雅连”、“云连”。多系栽培,主产于四川、云南、湖北。秋季采挖,除去须根及泥沙,干燥。生用或清炒、姜汁炙、酒炙、吴茱萸水炙用。
      
【药性】苦,寒。归心,脾、胃、胆、大肠经。       
 
【功效】清热燥湿,泻火解毒。       
 
【应用】        1.湿热痞满、呕吐吞酸。本品大苦大寒,清热燥湿力大于黄芩,尤长于清中焦湿热。治湿热阻滞中焦,气机不畅所致脘腹痞满、恶心呕吐,常配苏叶用,如苏叶黄连汤(方出《温热经纬》,名见《中医妇科学》),或配黄芩、干姜、半夏用,如半夏泻心汤(《伤寒论》);若配石膏用,可治胃热呕吐,如石连散(《仙拈集》);若配吴茱萸,可治肝火犯胃所致胁肋胀痛、呕吐吞酸,如左金丸(《丹溪心法》);若配人参、白术、干姜等药用,可治脾胃虚寒,呕吐酸水,如连理汤(《症因脉治》)。       
 
 2.湿热泻痢。本品善去脾胃大肠湿热,为治泻痢要药,单用有效。若配木香,可治湿热泻痢,腹痛里急后重,如香连丸(《兵部手集方》);若配葛根、黄芩等药用,可治湿热泻痢兼表证发热,如葛根黄芩黄连汤(《伤寒论》);若配乌梅,可治湿热下痢脓血日久,如黄连丸(《外台秘要》)。       
 
 3.高热神昏,心烦不寐,血热吐衄。本品泻火解毒之中,尤善清泻心经实火,可用治心火亢盛所致神昏、烦躁之证。若配黄芩、黄柏、栀子,可治三焦热盛,高热烦燥;若配石膏、知毋、玄参、丹皮等药用,可治高热神昏,如清瘟败毒饮(《疫疹一得》);若配黄芩、白芍、阿胶等药用,可治热盛伤阴,心烦不寐,如黄连阿胶汤(《伤寒论》);若配肉桂,可治心火亢旺,心肾不交之怔忡不寐,如交泰丸(《四科简效方》);若配大黄、黄芩,可治邪火内炽,迫血妄行之吐衄,如泻心汤(《金匮要略》)。       
 
4.痈肿疖疮,目赤牙痛。本品既能清热燥湿,又能泻火解毒,尤善疗疔毒。用治痈肿疔毒,多与黄芩、黄柏、栀子同用,如黄连解毒汤(《外台秘要》);若配淡竹叶,可治目赤肿痛,赤脉胬肉,如黄连汤(《普济方》);若配生地黄、升麻、丹皮等药用,可治胃火上攻,牙痛难忍,如清胃散(《兰室秘藏》)。      
 
  5.消渴。本品善清胃火而可用治胃火炽盛,消谷善饥之消渴证,常配麦冬用,如治消渴丸(《普济方》);或配黄柏用,以增强泻火之力,如黄柏丸(《圣济总录》);若配生地黄,可用治肾阴不足,心胃火旺之消渴,如黄连丸(《外台秘要》)。       
 
 6.外治湿疹、湿疮、耳道流脓。本品有清热燥湿、泻火解毒之功,取之制为软膏外敷,可治皮肤湿疹、湿疮。取之浸汁涂患处,可治耳道流脓;煎汁滴眼,可治眼目红肿。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,2—5g。外用适量。       
 
【使用注意】本品大苦大寒,过服久服易伤脾胃,脾胃虚寒者忌用;苦燥易伤阴津,阴虚津伤者慎用。        【鉴别用药】本品入药,除生用外,还有酒炙、姜汁炙、吴茱萸水炙等特殊炮制品,其功用各有区别。酒黄连善清上焦火热,多用于目赤肿痛、口疮;姜黄连善清胃和胃止呕,多用治寒热互结,湿热中阻,痞满呕吐;萸黄连善舒肝和胃止呕,多用治肝胃不和之呕吐吞酸。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主热气目痛,眦伤泣出,肠癖腹痛下痢,妇人阴中肿痛。”       
2.《珍珠囊》:“其用有六:泻心火,一也;去中焦湿热,二也;诸疮必用,三也;去风湿,四也;治赤眼暴发,五也;止中部见血,六也。”       
 3.《本草正义》:“黄连大苦大寒,苦燥湿,寒胜热,能泄降一切有余之湿火,而心、脾、肝、肾之热,胆、胃、大小肠之火,无不治之。上以清风火之目病,中以平肝胃之呕吐,下以通腹痛之滞下,皆燥湿清热之效也。又苦先入心,清涤血热,故血家诸病,如吐衄溲血,便血淋浊,痔漏崩带等证,及痈疡斑疹丹毒,并皆仰给于此。       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分;本品主含小檗碱(黄连素),黄连碱,甲基黄连碱,掌叶防己碱,非洲防己碱,吐根碱等多种生物碱;并含黄柏酮,黄柏内酯等。       
2.药理作用:本品对葡萄球菌、链球菌、肺炎球菌、霍乱弧菌、炭疽杆菌及除宋内氏以外的痢疾杆菌均有较强的抗菌作用;对肺炎杆菌、白喉杆菌、枯草杆菌、百日咳杆菌、鼠疫杆菌、布氏杆菌、结核杆菌也有抗菌作用;对大肠杆菌、变形杆菌、伤寒杆菌作用较差;所含小檗碱小剂量时能兴奋心脏,增强其收缩力,增加冠状动脉血流量,大剂量时抑制心脏,减弱其收缩;小檗碱可减少蟾蜍心率,对兔、豚鼠、大鼠离体心房有兴奋作用并有抗心率失常的作用,有利胆、抑制胃液分泌、抗腹泻等作用,小剂量对小鼠大脑皮层的兴奋过程有加强作用,大剂量则对抑制过程有加强作用,有抗急性炎症、抗癌、抑制组织代谢等作用;小檗碱和四氢小檗碱能降低心肌的耗氧量;黄连及其提取成分有抗溃疡作用,       
3.临床研究:结合传统上用本品治疗湿热泻痢,现代临床常用以治疗细菌性痢疾、非特异性溃疡性结肠炎、轮状病毒性结肠炎、急性胃肠炎等疾病;用黄连、食醋、白糖、山楂片,加水浸泡7天,饭后服,治疗萎缩性胃炎24例,有显效(中医杂志,1986,9:401);用葛根芩连汤加减治疗慢性鼻炎50例,痊愈29例,显效17例(实用医学杂志,2000,7:543);用加味黄连解毒汤治疗急性脑梗死48例,治愈、显效率为81.2%(安徽中医临床杂志,2001,5:329);
此外,用黄连或其制剂或以其为主配其他药物,临床上还广泛用于治疗慢性胆囊炎、肺结核、肺脓肿、呼吸道感染、白喉、百日咳、心率失常、高血压、糖尿病、宫颈糜烂、萎缩性鼻炎、急性结膜炎、沙眼、单疱病毒角膜炎、化脓性中耳炎、烧伤等疾病。       

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