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Huangqi (Milkvetch Root)---黄芪(北)(powder100g/bottle)

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This medicinal is the dried root of Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch)Bge var.mongholicus (Bge)Hsiao or A.membranaeus(Fish)Bge. It is exavated and collected in spring and autumn. After removal of its rootlets and root-heads, it is dreid by natural sunlight and sliced. The raw or stir-baked with honey forms can be used as medicine.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Sweet and slightly warm; relate to spleen and lung meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Tonify qi and raise yang; strengthen the defensive and superficial; induce diuresis to alleviate edema; expel toxin and promote tissue regenergation.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Spleen qi deficiency syndrome, syndrome of sinking of middle qi     It is an essential medicinal for invigorating the middle and replenishing qi. For lassitude, lack of strength, anorexia and loose stool, due to spleen qi deficiency, it is often used in combination with Dangshen and Baizhu. In cases of proctoptosis due to prolonged diarrhea, prolapse of internal organs, which result from the sinking of middle qi, it is used with Renshen and Shengma, as in the Buzhong yiqi Decoction. Furthermore, it functions to tonify qi and produce blood and treats blood deficiency syndrome in combination with Danggui as in the Danggui Buxue Decoction. For loss of blood, which is due to the failure of spleen to control blood, it is combined with Renshen and Baizhu, as in the Guipi Decoction. To treat Xiaoke( similar to deabetes), which is due to the spleen failing to distribute fluid, it is combined with Tianhuafen and Gegen.

2.Lung qi deficiency syndrome, spontaneous sweating due to qi deficiency      For chronic cough and dyspnea, shortness of breath, listlessness, which is due to lung qi deficiency, it is used in combinaiton with Ziyuan, Kuandonghua. To treat spontaneous sweating due to exterior deficiency, it is used with Muli and Mahuanggen. For those with exterior deficiency syndrome presenting as spontaneous sweating and vulnerability to pathogenic wind, it is combined with Baizhu and Fangfeng, as in the Yupingfeng Powder.

3. Edema due to qi deficiency     It is an essential medicinal to treat edema due to qi deficiency. In this case, it is combined with Baizhu and Fuling.

4. Deficiencyt syndrome of qi and blood, unruptured ulcers or unhealed ulcers after rupture     When the healthy qi is deficient and fails to expel interior toxins outwardly, there may appear even-shaped, wide-rooted ulcers which fail to heal for a long period after rupturing. In this case, it is prescribed with Danggui and Shengma as in the Tounong Powder. For that due to deficiency of qi and blood, it is combined with Danggui and Rougui, as in the Shiquan Dabu Decoction.

Furthermore, with the function of tonifying qi to promote blood circulation, it treats arthralgia and sequealae of wind-stroke.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 9-30g. Honey-roasted, it is more effective for invigorating the middle and replenishing qi.

[ Medicinal Comparison ]: Similarities:Renshen, Dangshen and Huangqi, all have the functions of tonifying qi, promoting the production of fluid and blood and are usaully used in combination to creat mutual reinforcement.

Differences: Renshen, of the three, is the most powderful in terms of its action, is considered as the most significant medicinal to tonify qi. Renshen also has the functions of replenishing qi to saving collapse, inducing traqnquilization and improving intelligence, tonifying qi and invigorating yang. Dangshen, mild in tonifying qi, focuses on tonifying spleen qi and lung qi and has the additional funcitn of nourishing blood. Huangqi is weaker than Renshen in tonifying primordial qi, but more effective for tonifying qi and raising yang, strengthening the defensive and superficial, promoting tissue regeneration, inducing diuresis to alleviate edema and used to treart spleen insufficiency syndrome with qi sinking and exterior deficiency syndrome with spontaneous sweating.

黄芪为豆科植物蒙古黄芪Astragalus memeranaceus (Fisch.)Bge.var.mongholicus (Bge.)Hsiao或膜荚黄芪A.membranaceus(Fisch.)Bge. 的根。主产于内蒙古、山西、黑龙江等地。春秋二季采挖,除去须根及根头,晒干,切片,生用或蜜炙用。

       【药性】甘,微温。归脾、肺经。        【功效】健脾补中,升阳举陷,益卫固表,利尿,托毒生肌。       
 
【应用】        1.脾气虚证。本品甘温,善入脾胃,为补中益气要药。脾气虚弱,倦怠乏力,食少便溏者,可单用熬膏服,或与党参、白术等补气健脾药配伍。因其能升阳举陷,故长于治疗脾虚中气下陷之久泻脱肛,内脏下垂。常与人参、升麻、柴胡等品同用,如补中益气汤(《脾胃论》)。若脾虚水湿失运,以致浮肿尿少者,本品既能补脾益气,又能利尿消肿,标本兼治,为治气虚水肿之要药,常与白术、茯苓等利水消肿之品配伍。本品又能补气生血,治血虚证亦常与补血药配伍,如当归补血汤(《兰室秘藏》)以之与当归同用。对脾虚不能统血所致失血证,本品尚可补气以摄血,常与人参、白术等品同用,如归脾汤(《济生方》)。对脾虚不能布津之消渴,本品能补气生津,促进津液的生成与输布而有止渴之效,常与天花粉、葛根等品同用,如玉液汤(《医学衷中参西录》)。       
 
2.肺气虚证。本品入肺又能补益肺气,可用于肺气虚弱,咳喘日久,气短神疲者,常与紫菀、款冬花、杏仁等祛痰止咳平喘之品配伍。       
 
 3.气虚自汗证。脾肺气虚之人往往卫气不固,表虚自汗。本品能补脾肺之气,益卫固表,常与牡蛎、麻黄根等止汗之品同用,如牡蛎散(《和剂局》)。若因卫气不固,表虚自汗而易感风邪者,宜与白术、防风等品同用,如玉屏风散(《丹溪心法》)。       
 
 4.气血亏虚,疮疡难溃难腐,或溃久难敛。本品以其补气之功还能收托毒生肌之效。疮疡中期,正虚毒盛不能托毒外达,疮形平塌,根盘散漫,难溃难腐者,可用本品补气生血,扶助正气,托脓毒外出,常与人参、当归、升麻、白芷等品同用,如托里透脓散(《医宗金鉴》)。溃疡后期,因气血虚弱,脓水清稀,疮口难敛者,用本品补气生血,有生肌敛疮之效。常与人参、当归、肉桂等品同用,如十全大补汤(《和剂局方》)。       
 
 此外,痹证、中风后遗症等气虚而致血滞,筋脉失养,症见肌肤麻木或半身不遂者,亦常用本品补气以行血。治疗风寒湿痹,宜与川乌、独活等祛风湿药和川芎、牛膝等活血药配伍。对于中风后遗症,常与当归、川芎、地龙等品同用,如补阳还五汤(《医林改错》)。       
 
 【用法用量】煎服,9~30g。蜜炙可增强其补中益气作用。       
 
【鉴别用药】人参、党参、黄芪三药,皆具有补气及补气生津、补气生血之功效,且常相须为用,能相互增强疗效。但人参作用较强,被誉为补气第一要药,并具有益气救脱、安神增智、补气助阳之功。党参补气之力较为平和,专于补益脾肺之气,兼能补血。黄芪补益元气之力不及人参,但长于补气升阳、益卫固表、托疮生肌、利水退肿,尤宜于脾虚气陷及表虚自汗等证。       
 
 【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主治痈疽,久败疮,排脓止痛……补虚。”       
 
2.《本草汇言》:“补肺健脾,实卫敛汗,驱风运毒之药也。”       
 
3.《医学衷中参西录》:“能补气,兼能升气,善治胸中大气(即宗气……)下陷。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品主要含苷类、多糖、黄酮、氨基酸、微量元素等。       
 
 2.药理作用:黄芪能促进机体代谢、抗疲劳、促进血清和肝脏蛋白质的更新;有明显的利尿作用,能消除实验性肾炎尿蛋白;能改善贫血动物现象;能升高低血糖,降低高血糖;能兴奋呼吸;能增强和调节机体免疫功能,对干扰素系统有促进作用,可提高机体的抗病力;对流感病毒等多种病毒所致细胞病变有轻度抑制作用,对流感病毒感染小鼠有保护作用;有较广泛的抗菌作用;黄芪在细胞培养中,可使细胞数明显增多,细胞生长旺盛,寿命延长;能增强心肌收缩力,保护心血管系统,抗心率失常,扩张冠状动脉和外周血管,降低血压,能降低血小板粘附力,减少血栓形成;还有降血脂、抗衰老、抗缺氧、抗辐射、保肝等作用。       
 
3.临床研究:据报道,以黄芪50g煎服,每日1剂,治疗过敏性鼻炎、慢性鼻炎及预防小儿上呼吸道感染等,效果颇佳(中医杂志,2000,6:331)。]每日口服黄芪提取液2ml(含生药2g),预防小儿上吸呼道感染100例,有效率94%(哈尔滨医科大学学报,1993,5:366);用黄芪治疗92例缺血性心脏病;其缓解心绞痛,改善心电图及心阻抗图等疗效均优于心痛定和丹参(中国免疫学杂志,1989,2:119-120)。本品还有用于小儿哮喘、冠心病、关节炎、缺血性脑血管病、慢性肾炎、慢性肝炎、产后非感染性发热、过敏性鼻炎等疾病者。       
 
4.不良反应:黄芪注射液有导致皮疹、过敏性休克的报道;有12例妊娠7个月以上的孕妇,因连续服用黄芪15天,总量300g以上,结果过期妊娠8例,产程延长6例,胎盘迟剥3例,会阴侧切4例,产钳助产1例,胎儿过大行剖腹产1例,胎儿体重3500g~4600g。

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