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Kulianpi (Szechwan Chinaerry Bark)---苦楝皮

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Product Description

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 This medicinal is the stem bark or root bark of Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc or Melia azedarach L (Fam. Chinaberry). The former is mainly productd in Sichuan. It is collected in spring and summer. After the cork is removed, the fresh bark is washed clean to e utilized in its unprocessed form. The dried form is sliced in pieces for use, after thorough maceration.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter, cold and toxic; relate to spleen, stomach and liver meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Dispel worms; treat tinea.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Intestinal parasitic disease         As a potent parasite-killer, it is used to destroy fvarious parasites; yet, it is effective for ascared. For ascariasis, it is decocted alone or processed into pills or syrup. It is also used in combination with Binglang and Shijunzi.

2. Acariasis and eczema       In this case, it is ground into powder by itself, mixed with vinegar or pig fat and applied on the affected parts. Also it can be used in combination with Huangbo, Kushen and Mingfan( alum).

[ Administration and dosage] : 4.5-9g. Appropriate amount for external application.

[ Precautions ]: It is toxic, so continuous or overusage of this medicinal should be avoided. Due to the insolubility of its active ingredients in water, it should be simmered with wild fire for a long period of time.

苦楝皮 为楝科植物楝Melia azedarach L.或川楝M.toosendan Sieb .et Zucc.的干燥树皮及根皮。前者全国大部分地区均产,后者主产于四川、湖北、贵州、河南等地。四时可采,但以春、秋两季为宜。剥取根皮或干皮,刮去栓皮,洗净。鲜用或切片生用。

【药性】苦,寒。有毒。归肝、脾、胃经。        【功效】杀虫,疗癣。       
 
【应用】        1.蛔虫,蛲虫,钩虫等病。本品苦寒有毒,有较强的杀虫作用,可治多种肠道寄生虫,为广谱驱虫中药。治蛔虫病,可单用水煎、煎膏或制成片剂、糖浆服用;亦可与使君子、槟榔、大黄等同用,如化虫丸(《全国中药成药处方集》)。与百部、乌梅同煎,取浓液于晚间作保留灌肠,连用2~4天,可治蛲虫病。与石榴皮同煎服之,可治钩虫病,如楝榴二皮饮(《湖北药物志》)。       
2.疥癣,湿疮。本品能清热燥湿,杀虫止痒。单用本品研末,用醋或猪脂调涂患处,可治疥疮、头癣、湿疮、湿疹瘙痒等证。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,4.5~9g。鲜品15~30g。外用适量。        【使用注意】本品有毒,不宜过量或持续久服。有效成分难溶于水,需文火久煎。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《名医别录》:“疗蛔虫,利大肠。”        2.《日华子本草》:“治游风热毒,风疹恶疮疥癞,小儿壮热,并煎汤浸洗。”        3.《滇南本草》:“根皮以杀小儿寸白。”       
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含川楝素,苦楝酮,苦楝萜酮内酯,苦楝萜醇内酯,苦楝萜酸甲酯,苦楝子三醇等。       
 
2.药理作用:本品煎剂或醇提取物均对猪蛔虫有抑制以至麻痹作用。主要成分为川楝素,能透过虫体表皮,直接作用于蛔虫肌肉,扰乱其能量代谢,导致收缩性疲劳而痉挛。本品对小鼠蛲虫有麻痹作用,并能抗血吸虫。川楝素对肉毒中毒动物有治疗作用,使兔肠肌肌张力及收缩力增加,抑制大鼠呼吸等。      
 
  3.临床研究:苦楝皮150g,鲜葱白100g,捣烂加醋后制成药饼,外敷脐周,治疗蛔虫性肠梗阻30例,均获良效(湖南中医杂志,1986,2:50);苦楝皮20g,雄黄、白矾各5g,凡士林70g,混合成膏,外用涂搽,治疗体癣127例,总有效率91.67%(周凤梧《中药学》,1981,660);苦楝皮75g,花椒50g,加水2000ml,武火煎20分钟,不去渣,加陈醋100ml,涂擦患处,治疗疥疮6例,均于10日内治愈(山西中医,1994,5:36)。另有用苦楝皮治疗滴虫性肠炎、滴虫性阴道炎等。      
 
  4.不良反应:有毒成分为川楝素和异川楝素。中毒表现:恶心呕吐、剧烈腹痛、腹泻、头晕头痛、视力模糊、全身麻木、心律不齐、血压下降、呼吸困难、神志恍惚、狂躁或痿靡、震颤或惊厥,最后因呼吸和循环衰竭而死亡。中毒原因主要是用量过大,或用法不当,或患者体质原因。解救办法可洗胃,催吐,导泻,补液及对症治疗;轻者可用绿豆120g,龙眼肉60g,甘草15g,煎水频服。       

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