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Kuxingren (Bitter Apricot Seed)---苦杏仁

Price:
$11.87
Weight:
1.00 LBS
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Calculated at checkout


Product Description

kuxingren-yuantai-l.jpgkuxingren-yaocai-l.jpg

It is the dried ripe seed of Prunus armeniaca L.var.ansu Maxim.,Prunus sibirica L. Prunus mandshurica (Maxim.)Koehne or Pruns armeniaca L.,family Rosaceae. The seeds are collected from the ripe fruits in summer after the pulp is removed, and then dried in the sunshine. The raw or stir-baked are smashed into pieces to be utilized as medicine.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter, slightly warm and mildly toxic; relate to lung and large intestine meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Relieve cough and dyspnea; moisten intestine and release bowels.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Cough and dyspnea      It treats cough due to wind-heat, in cobination with Sangye and Juhua, such as Sangju Decoction; it treats cough caused by dry-heat with Sangye, Chuanbeimu and Shashen, such as Sangxiang Decoction; in cases of cough resulting from lung-heat, it is combined with Mahuang and Shengshigao , such as Mahuang Xingren Gancao Shigao Decoction.

2. Intestinal dryness causing constipation       It is usually combined together with Huomaren, Danggui and Zhiqiao, such as Runchang Pill.

[Usage and Dosage ]: 4.5g-9g. The raw medicinal is decocted later.

[ Precautions ]: It is mildly toxic, so it must be used within the amount listed. It is used with caution when treatig infants.

[ Medicinal Comparison ]: Similarities: Taoren and Kuxingren moisten the intestines, release the bowels and relileve cough and dyspnea. They treat constipation due to intestinal dryness.

Differences: Taoren is more effective to activate blood and resolve stasis, so it treats blood-stasis manifested as dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, abdominal pain after delivery, abdominal mass, pain in chest and hypochondrium and traumatic injury. In addition, it also treats pulmonary abscesses and intestinal abscesses at an early stage. Kuxingren is more effective for relieving cough and dyspnea, so it treats cough and dyspnea due to many factors.

[ Side Effects ]: Over dosage of Kuxingren may easily lead to poisoning. First , its excites vomiting, breathing , vagus, vasomotor and other centers and then there is coma and convulsion. Afterwards, the whole centreal nervous system goes numb and finally leads to death. The manifestations of poisoning are dizziness, headache, quick breathing, vomiting, palpitation, cyanosis, coma and convulsion.

苦杏仁为蔷薇科植物山杏Prunues armeniaca L. var. ansu Maxim.西伯利亚杏P.sibirica L.东北杏 P. mandshurica (Maxim.)Koehne或杏 P. armeniaca L.的成熟种子。主产我国东北、内蒙古、华北、西北、新疆及长江流域。夏季采收成熟果实,除去果肉及核壳,晾干,生用或炒用。

       【药性】苦,微温。有小毒。归肺、大肠经。        【功效】止咳平喘,润肠通便。       
 
 【应用】        1.咳嗽气喘。本品主入肺经,味苦降泄,肃降兼宣发肺气而能止咳平喘,为治咳喘之要药,随证配伍可治多种咳喘病证。如风寒咳喘,胸闷气逆,配麻黄、甘草,以散风寒宣肺平喘,如三拗汤(《伤寒论》);若风热咳嗽,发热汗出,配桑叶、菊花,以散风热宣肺止咳,如桑菊饮(《温病条辨》);若燥热咳嗽,痰少难咯,配桑叶、贝母、沙参,以清肺润燥止咳,如桑杏汤(《温病条辨》)、清燥救肺汤(《医门法律》);肺热咳喘,配石膏等以清肺泄热宣肺平喘,如麻杏石甘汤(《伤寒论》)。       
 
 2.肠燥便秘。本品质润多脂,味苦而下气,故能润肠通便。常配柏子仁、郁李仁等同用,如五仁丸(《世医得效方》)。       
 
此外,本品外用,可治蛲虫病、外阴瘙痒。        【用法用量】煎服,3~10g,宜打碎入煎,或入丸、散。       
 
【使用注意】阴虚咳喘及大便溏泻者忌用。本品有小毒,用量不宜过大;婴儿慎用。       
 
【古籍摘要】        l.《本草拾遗》:“杀虫。以利喉咽,去喉痹、痰唾、咳嗽、喉中热结生疮。”        2.《珍珠囊药性赋》:“除肺热,治上焦风燥,利胸膈气逆,润大肠气秘。”        3.《本草便读》;“功专降气,气降则痰消嗽止。能润大肠,故大肠气秘者可用之。”       
 
 【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含苦杏仁苷及脂肪油、蛋白质、各种游离氨基酸。尚含苦杏仁酶、苦杏仁苷酶、绿原酸、肌醇、苯甲醛、芳樟醇。       
 
2.药理作用:所含苦杏仁苷口服后,在下消化道分解后产生少量氢氰酸,能抑制咳嗽中枢而起镇咳平喘作用。在生成氢氰酸的同时,也产生苯甲醛,后者可抑制胃蛋白酶的活性,从而影响消化功能。苦杏仁苷及其水解生成的氢氰酸和苯甲酸体外试验均证明有微弱抗癌作用。苦杏仁油对蛔虫、钩虫及伤寒杆菌、副伤寒杆菌有抑制作用,且有润滑性通便作用。此外,苦杏仁苷有抗突变作用,所含蛋白质成分还有明显的抗炎及镇痛作用。       
 
 3.临床研究:杏仁炒干粉碎,加红糖搅匀服,治疗气滞痰郁的慢性咽炎效果良好。(四川中医,1991,10:48);苦杏仁苷,口服或静脉滴注,治疗晚期肺癌、食道癌,肿瘤病灶未见明显缩小,但大部患者的症状均有不同程度的缓解(肿瘤,1984,6:273);苦杏仁苷还用于何杰金氏病、支气管癌、梭状细胞肉瘤、精母细胞瘤、慢性髓性白血病、胸膜癌、恶性淋巴瘤、多发性直肠癌、乳癌并发骨转移等的治疗;以杏仁为主治疗上消化道溃疡,效果满意(河南中医,1997,1:56);苦杏仁火炙或焙后研末,香油调敷,分治小儿脓疮、黄水疮多例均痊愈。(山东中医学院学报,1980,3:66;中医外治杂志,1987,5:45);本品和猪脂共捣为泥,用布包擦患处,治老年性皮肤瘙痒症,效佳(山东中医杂志,1995,10:470);苦杏仁与醋合煎,涂患处,治疗足癣疗佳(广西中医药,1985,5:45)。       
 
 4.不良反应:苦杏仁的主要成分苦杏仁苷水解后的产物氢氰酸,为有效成分,也是中毒成分,误服过量杏仁可产生氢氰酸中毒,使延髓各生命中枢先抑制后麻痹,并抑制细胞色素氧化酶的活性而引起组织窒息。临床表现为眩晕、心悸、恶心、呕吐等中毒反应,重者出现昏迷,惊厥、瞳孔散大、对光反应消失,最后因呼吸麻痹而死亡。中毒的处理:早期可用高锰酸钾或过氧化氢或10%硫代硫酸钠洗胃,然后大量饮糖水,或静脉注射葡萄糖液。严重者立即给氧,静注3%亚硝酸钠溶液10mL。如病情危急时,吸入亚硝酸异戊酯,每隔2分钟吸30秒,反复吸入3次,以代替亚硝酸钠。对于轻症,民间用杏树皮(去粗皮)60g,加水500mL,煮沸20分钟,取汁温服。       
 
 附药 甜杏仁Tanxingren        为蔷薇科植物杏或山杏的的部分栽培种而其味甘甜的成熟种子。性味甘平,功效与苦杏仁类似,药力较缓,且偏于润肺止咳。主要用于虚劳咳嗽或津伤便秘。煎服,5~10g。       

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