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LianQiao ( Fructus Forsythiae/weeping Forsythia Capsule)---连翘(powder100g/bottle)

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Lianqiao is the dried fruit of Forsythia suspense ( Thunb.) Vahl, pertaining to Oleaceae. In fall, the primarily ripened fruit with green color is collected. After the impurities are removed,it is fully steamed, and then sun dried. This is knows as Blue Qiao. The fully repened, which is collected and sun dried with the impurities removed, is known as Old Qiao. After harvest, Blue Qiao is steamed and sun dried. Its seeds are picked out by sieves as Lianqiaoxin. Blue Qiao is the better one. The raw form is used.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter and slightly cold; relate to lung, heart and small intestine meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Clear heat and relieve toxicity; cure swelling, dissipate nodulation; disperse and relieve Wind-heat.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 6-15 g.

[ Precautions ]: Be cautious with deficiency-cold in spleen and stomach and diluted pus due to qi deficiency.
 
[ Clinical Applications]: 1. Abscess, swelling, sores, toxin, scrofula and phlegm nodule     Lianqiao is effective to clear heat, relieve toxicity, cure abscess and dissipate nodulation, so known as the saint medicinal for sores. It teats Abscess, swelling, sores, toxin, usually combined with Jinyinhua, Pugongying and Yejuhua; Also it treats scrofula and phlegm nodule due to accumulation of phlegm fire, usually combined with Xiakucao, Zhebeimu, Xuanshen and Muli.
 
2. External Contraction of wind-heat and early stage of warm disease     It treats external contraction of wind-heat or early stage of warm disease, both manifesting as fever, headache, thirst anad sore throat, usually combined with Jinyinhua, Bohe and Niubangzi; for example in Yinqiao Powder. Also it can let out heat through qi to treat heat entering nutrient-blood, manifesting as purple tongue, coma, agitation, fever and macula, usually combined with Xuanshen, Shengdihuang, and Jinyinhua; for example in Qingying Decoction. Lianqiaoxin is good at purging heart fire, so usually combined with Maidong and Lianzixin to treat entring of heat into pericardium in warm disease, manifesting as high fever and coma; for example in Qinggong Decoction.
 
3. Heat stranguria and astringent pain     In case of unsmooth urination or dribbling with astringent pain, it is usually combined with Cheqianzi, Baimaogen and Zhuye.
 
[ Medicinal Comparison ]: Similarities: Both Jinyinhua and LIanqiao can clear heat, relieve toxicity, disperse and relieve wind-heat, so usually used in mutual reinforcement to treat abscess, swelling, sores, toxin, external contraction of wind-heat, and early stage of warm disease.
 
Differences: Jinyinhua is good at disperse and relieve wind-heat and also is able to cool blood and stop dysentery to treat blood dysentery due to heat toxin. Lianqiao is effective to clear heat, relieve toxicity, cure abscess and dissipate nodule, known as saint medicinal for sores, and also can treat scrofula and phlegm nodule.

连翘为木犀科植物连翘Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl的干燥果实。产于我国东北、华北、长江流域至云南。秋季果实初熟尚带绿色时采收,除去杂质,蒸熟,晒干,习称“青翘”;果实熟透时采收,晒干,除去杂质,习称“老翘”或“黄翘”。青翘采得后即蒸熟晒干,筛取籽实作“连翘心”用。生用。
      
【药性】苦,微寒,归肺、心、小肠经。       
 
【功效】清热解毒,消肿散结,疏散风热。       
 
【应用】        1.痈肿疮毒,瘰疬痰核。本品苦寒,主入心经,既能清心火,解疮毒,又能消散痈肿结聚,故有“疮家圣药”之称。用治痈肿疮毒,常与金银花、蒲公英、野菊花等解毒消肿之品同用,若疮痈红肿未溃,常与穿山甲、皂角刺配伍,如加减消毒饮(《外科真铨》);若疮疡脓出、红肿溃烂,常与牡丹皮、天花粉同用,如连翘解毒汤(《疡医大全》);用治痰火郁结,瘰疬痰核,常与夏枯草、浙贝母、玄参、牡蛎等同用,共奏清肝散结,化痰消肿之效。       
 
 2.风热外感,温病初起。本品苦能清泄,寒能清热,入心、肺二经,长于清心火,散上焦风热,常与金银花、薄荷、牛蒡子等同用,治疗风热外感或温病初起,头痛发热、口渴咽痛,如银翘散(《温病条辨》)。若用连翘心与麦冬、莲子心等配伍,尚可用治温热病热入心包,高热神昏,如清宫汤(《温病条辨》);本品又有透热转气之功,与水牛角、生地、金银花等同用,还可治疗热入营血之舌绛神昏,烦热斑疹,如清营汤(《温病条辨》)。       
 
3.热淋涩痛。本品苦寒通降,兼有清心利尿之功,多与车前子、白茅根、竹叶、木通等药配伍,治疗湿热壅滞所致之小便不利或淋沥涩痛,如如圣散(《杂病源流犀烛》)。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,6~15g。       
 
【使用注意】脾胃虚寒及气虚脓清者不宜用。       
 
【鉴别用药】连翘临床有青翘、老翘及连翘心之分。青翘,其清热解毒之力较强;老翘,长于透热达表,而疏散风热;连翘心,长于清心泻火,常用治邪入心包的高热烦躁、神昏谵语等症。        连翘与金银花,均有清热解毒作用,既能透热达表,又能清里热而解毒。对外感风热、温病初起、热毒疮疡等证常相须为用。然区别点是:连翘清心解毒之力强,并善于消痈散结,为疮家圣药,亦治瘰疬痰核;而金银花疏散表热之效优,且炒炭后善于凉血止痢,用治热毒血痢。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主寒热,鼠瘘、瘰疬、痈肿、恶疮、瘿瘤、结热、蛊毒。”        2.《日华子本草》:“治疮疖止痛。”        3.《珍珠囊》:“连翘之用有三:泻心经客热,一也;去上焦诸热,二也,为疮家圣药,三也。”       
 
 【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含三萜皂苷,果皮含甾醇、连翘酚、生物碱、皂苷、齐墩果酸、香豆精类,还有丰富的维生素P及少量挥发油。      
  2.药理作用:连翘有广谱抗菌作用,抗菌主要成分为连翘酚及挥发油,对金黄色葡萄球菌、痢疾杆菌有很强的抑制作用,对其他致病菌、流感病毒以及钩端螺旋体也均有一定的抑制作用;本品有抗炎、解热作用。所含齐墩果酸有强心、利尿及降血压作用;所含维生素P可降低血管通透性及脆性,防止溶血。其煎剂有镇吐和抗肝损伤作用。       
 3.临床研究:据报道,连翘除常用于急性呼吸道感染和急性皮肤化脓性感染外,还可用于其他多种疾病,如:以连翘配合黄芩、延胡索、冰片、紫草等药混合研末,撒吹于溃疡面,治疗小儿口腔溃疡126例,总有效率为88%(上海中医药杂志 1995,12:29);用连翘为主配伍黄芩、大青叶,制成注射液,肌注,治疗银屑病60例,总有效率80%,且未见不良反应(中药临床新用2001:324);用连翘水煎于饭前口服,每日3次,治疗视网膜动静脉血栓阻塞283例,其中216例为黄斑区出血,用药后明显提高视力,改善偏盲症状,有效率为93%(中医药学报1998,3:37)。
此外,连翘尚可用治颈淋巴结核、急性传染性肝炎、过敏性紫癜、急性肾炎以及呕吐、便秘等。       

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