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Longdan ( Chinese Gentian )/(Radix Gentianae)---龙胆(powder100g/bottle)

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Longdan is the dried root and rhizome or of Gentiana manshurica Kitage., Gentiana scabra Bge., gentiana tirflora Pall., gentiana rigescens Franch., pertaining to Gentianaceae. The former three are usually called Longdanand the latter one is called Jian LongdanLongdans productive amount is highest in Northeast China, so it is also known as Guan Longdan. It is collected in spring and fall. After washed and sun dried, it is cut into slices. The raw form is used.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter and cold; relate to liver and gallbladder meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Clear heat, dry dampness; purge fire in liver and gallbladder.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-6 g. Also it can be used externally.

[ Precautions ]: Avoid with deficiency-cold of spleen and stomach.
 
[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Damp-heat, jaundice, swelling of vulva, pruritus vulvae, leucorrhea and eczema     Longdan is very effective to clear damp-heat in lower energizer. For jaundice due to damp-heat, it is combined with Yinchen and Zhizi. Also for swelling of vulva, pruritus vulvae, eczema, itching, yellowish and stink leucorrhea, it is combined with Zexie, Mutong, Cheqianzi; for example in Longdan Xiegan Decoction.
 
2. Excessive heat in liver and gallbladder, reddish eyes, deafness, hypochondriac pain, and bitter taste in the mouth    It is effective to purge excessive fire in liver and gallbladder, usually combined with Chaihu, Huangqin and Zhizi; for example in Longdan Xiegan Decoction.
 
3. Prosperous fire in liver meridian, convulsions and clonic convulsions     In case of prosperous fire in liver meridians, and generation of wind by extereme heat, manifesting as convulsions and clonic convulsions , usually it is comined with Niuhuang, Qindai and Huanglian; for example in Liangjing Pills.

龙胆为龙胆科植物条叶龙胆Gentiana manshurica Kitag.、龙胆G. scabra Bge.、三叶龙胆G. triflora Pall. 或坚龙胆G. rigescens Franch.的干燥根及根茎。前三种习称“龙胆”,后一种习称“坚龙胆”。各地均有分布。以东北产量最大,故习称“关龙胆”。春、秋二季采挖,洗净,晒干,切段。生用。
      
【药性】苦,寒。归肝、胆经。       
 
【功效】清热燥湿,泻肝胆火。       
 
【应用】        1.湿热黄疸、阴肿阴痒、带下、湿疹瘙痒。本品苦寒,清热燥湿之中,尤善清下焦湿热,常用治下焦湿热所致诸证。治湿热黄疸,可配苦参用,如苦参丸(《杂病源流犀烛》),或配栀子、大黄、白茅根等药用,如龙胆散(《圣惠方》);若治湿热下注,阴肿阴痒、湿疹瘙痒、带下黄臭,常配泽泻、木通、车前子等药用,如龙胆泻肝汤(《兰室秘藏》)。       
 
 2.肝火头痛、目赤耳聋、胁痛口苦。本品苦寒沉降,善泻肝火胆实火,治上述诸症,多配柴胡、黄芩、栀子等药用,如龙胆泻肝汤(《兰室秘藏》)。       
 
3.惊风抽搐。取本品清泻肝胆实火之功,可用治肝经热盛,热极生风所致之高热惊风抽搐,常配牛黄、青黛、黄连等药用,如凉惊丸(《小儿药性直决》),或配黄柏、大黄、芦荟等药用,如当归芦荟丸(《宣明论方》)。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,3—6g。        【使用注意】脾胃寒者不宜用,阴虚津伤者慎用.       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主骨间寒热,惊痫邪气,续绝伤,定五脏,杀蛊毒。”      
  2.《珍珠囊》:“去目中黄及睛赤肿胀,瘀肉高起,痛不可忍。”        3.《药品化义》:“胆草专泻肝胆之火,主治目痛颈痛,两胁疼痛,惊痫邪气,小儿疳积,凡属肝经热邪为患,用之神妙。其气味厚重而沉下,善清下焦湿热,若囊痈、便毒、下疳,及小便涩滞,男子阳挺肿胀,或光亮出脓,或茎中痒痛,女人因癃作痛,或发痒生疮,以此入龙胆泻肝汤治之,皆苦寒胜热之力也。       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含龙胆苦苷、獐牙菜苦苷、三叶苷、苦龙苷、苦樟苷、龙胆黄碱、龙胆碱、秦艽乙素、秦艽丙素、龙胆三糖、?—谷甾醇等。       
 2.药理作用:龙胆水浸剂对石膏样毛癣菌、星形奴卡氏菌等皮肤真菌有不同程度的抑制作用,对钩端螺旋体、绿脓杆菌、变形杆菌、伤寒杆菌也有抑制作用;所含龙胆苦苷有抗炎、保肝及抗疟原虫作用;龙胆碱有镇静、肌松作用,大剂量龙胆碱有降压作用,并能抑制心脏、减缓心率;龙胆有抑制抗体生成及健胃作用。       
3.临床研究:结合传统用本品治疗湿热黄疸、目赤等证,现代临床用以治疗急性黄疸型肝炎、急性卡他性结膜炎等病;用龙胆草、丹参、川芎,水煎服,大便秘结者加大黄,治疗带状疱疹42例,全部治愈(河北中医,1984,2:27);用龙胆泻肝汤加减治疗带状疱疹后遗神经痛30例,连续服药1个月,痊愈23例,显效5例(中华皮肤科杂志,2000,2:130);用加味龙胆泻肝汤治疗肛肠病(包括肛门湿疹、炎症外痔、肛裂、内痔嵌顿、初期肛周脓肿等)800例,疗效显著(中国中西医结合外科杂志,2001,5:343)。

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