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LUJIAOSHUANG (Deer-horn / Antler)---鹿角霜

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This medicinal is the hairy, non-ossified young horn of a stag of Cervus Nippon Tmminck or Crvus elaphus Linnaeus (Fam.cervidae). The former one is traditionally known as Hualurong, the latter one is called Malurong. The hairy, non-ossified young horn of a stag is sawed-off in summer and autumn. After removing the hair by burning, it is sliced, dried in shade or simply baked until dry.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Sweet, salty, warm; relate to kidney and live meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Tonify kidney yang; replenish essence and blood; strengthen tendons and bones; regulate Chong (Thoroughfare) and Ren (Conception) vessels; expel sores.

[ CLinical Applications ]: 1.Kidney yang deficiency, essence-blood insufficiency       For impotence, frequent urination, due to kidney yang deficiency, it is usually combined with Shanyao in the form of wine infusion. For darkish complexion, deafness,dizziness, due to exhaustion of essence and blood, it is processed into pills in combination with Danggui and Wumei Paste. When prescribed with Renshen and Huangqi, in the Shenrong Guben Pills, it treats insufficiency of original qi, manifested as intolearance of cold, cold extremities, impotence, prospermia,infertility due to cold-uterus, and frequent urination.

2. Kidney deficiency with bone weakness     In combination with Wujiapi and Shudihuang, in the jiawei Dihuang Pills, it treats kidney deficiency manifested as lumbago, or five kinds of retardation, and bone fracture. For the delayed healing of a bone fracture, in the advanced stage, it is combined with Gusuibu and Xuduan.

3. Deficiency-cold in thoroughfare and conception vessels, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis, vaginal discharge     For metrorrhagia and metrostaxis and emaciation, it is used in combination with Wuzeigu and Longgu. While for excessive whitish vaginal discharge, it is combined with Gouji and Bailian.

4.Unhealed chronic ulcers, deep-rooted yin abscess     In this case, it is often prescribed with Danggui and Rourgui, as in the yanghe Decoction.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 1-2g, It is ground into powder for swallows, or used in pill or powder form.

[ Precautions ]: This medicinal should be taken in a small dosage at the beginning of treatment, and then the amount should be increased gradually. Sudden administration of a large dose of this medicinal may cause yang to rise and create stirring-wind, manifested as vertigo and red eyes. This medicinal may also cause damage to yin and  blood . It is contraindicated in patients with fever.

[ Annotation ]: Lujiao 鹿角   This medicinal is the  ossified horn of male deer or spotted deer. It is salty and warm, and relates to the liver and kidney meridians. It has the effect to tonify kidney-yang, as well as strengthen tendons and bones. It has a similar efficiacy to Lurong, but it is weaker, however, it can still be used as a substitute for Lurong. With its additional functions of activating the blood and relieving swelling, it is used to treat ulcers, toxin, acute mastitis, postpartum abdominal pain, lumbago and retention of the placenta. The dosage is 5-15g. It is contraindicated in patients with yin deficiency with effulgent fire.

Lujiaojiao 鹿角胶  This medicinal is the gelatine substance from the decoction of antler. It is salty and warm, and relates to the liver and kidney meridians. It is able to tonify the liver and kidney and replenish essence and blood. In his regards, this medicinal's efficacy is not as powderful as Lurong, but it is superior to Lujiao. It also has the function to stop bleeding and is indicated for insufficiency of kidney-yang and the deficiency of essence and blood. In addition it treats emaciation due to consumptive disease, hematemesis, epistaxis and hemafacia of deficiency-cold type, including the inward invasion of yin carbuncle. Usage and Dosage: 5-15g. It is melted in boiling water or yellow wine for oral administration. Also, it is used in the form of pills, powder and paste. It is contraindicated in patients with yin deficiency with effulgent fire.

Lujiaoshuang 鹿角霜   This medicinal is the produced from the residue of the decoction of Lujiao. It is salty and warm, and relates to the liver and kidney meridians. It has the ability to tonify kidney-yang, astringe sperm, stop bleeding and heal ulcers. It is similar to Lujiao infunction, but it is weaker. It is used to treat metrorrhagia, metrostaxis, spermatorrhea, as well as, bleeding due to traumatic injuries and chronic unhealed ulcers. Usage and Dosage: Decoction 10-25g. It is contraindicated in patients with yin-deficiency with effulgent-fire.

鹿茸为脊椎动物鹿科梅花鹿Cervus nippon Temminck 或马鹿Crvus elaphus L.等雄鹿头上尚未骨化而带茸毛的幼角。主产于吉林、黑龙江、辽宁、内蒙、新疆、青海等地。其它地区也有人工饲养。夏秋两季雄鹿长出的新角尚未骨化时,将角锯下或用刀砍下,用时燎去毛,切片后阴干或烘干入药。

       【药性】甘、咸,温。归肾、肝经。        【功效】补肾阳,益精血,强筋骨,调冲任,托疮毒。       
 
 【应用】        1.肾阳虚衰,精血不足证。本品甘温补阳,甘咸滋肾,禀纯阳之性,具生发之气,故能壮肾阳,益精血。若肾阳虚,精血不足,而见畏寒肢冷、阳痿早泄、宫冷不孕、小便频数、腰膝酸痛、头晕耳鸣、精神疲乏等,均可以本品单用或配入复方。如鹿茸酒,与山药浸酒服,治阳痿不举,小便频数;或与当归、乌梅膏为丸,治精血耗竭,面色黧黑,耳聋目昏等(《济生方》);亦常与人参、黄芪、当归同用治疗诸虚百损,五劳七伤,元气不足,畏寒肢冷、阳痿早泄、宫冷不孕、小便频数等证,如参茸固本丸(《中国医学大辞典》)。       
 
 2.肾虚骨弱,腰膝无力或小儿五迟。常以本品补肾阳,益精血,强筋骨多与五加皮、熟地、山萸肉等同用,如加味地黄丸(《医宗金鉴》);亦可与骨碎补、川断、自然铜等同用,治骨折后期,愈合不良。       
 
 3.妇女冲任虚寒,崩漏带下。本品补肾阳,益精血而兼能固冲任,止带下。与乌贼骨、龙骨、川断等同用,可治崩漏不止,虚损赢瘦,如鹿茸散(《证治准绳》)。若配狗脊、白蔹,可治白带过多,如白敛丸(《济生方》)。       
 
 4.疮疡久溃不敛,阴疽疮肿内陷不起。本品补阳气、益精血而达到温补内托的目的。治疗疮疡久溃不敛,阴疽疮肿内陷不起,常与当归、肉桂等配伍,如阳和汤(《外科全生集》)。       
 
 【用法用量】研末吞服,1~2g,或入丸、散。       
 
【使用注意】服用本品宜从小量开始,缓缓增加,不可骤用用大量,以免阳升风动,头晕目赤,或伤阴动血。凡发热者均当忌服。       
 
 【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主漏下恶血,寒热惊痫,益气强志,生齿不老。”       
 
 2.《别录》:“疗虚劳洒洒如疟,赢瘦,四肢酸痛,腰脊痛,小便利,泄精溺血。”       
 
3.《本草纲目》:“生精补髓,养血益阳,强筋健骨。治一切虚损,耳聋目暗,眩晕虚痢。”      
 
  附药 鹿角 鹿角胶 鹿角霜        1.鹿角 为梅花鹿和各种雄鹿已成长骨化的角。味咸,性温。归肝、肾经。功能补肾助阳,强筋健骨。可做鹿茸之代用品,惟效力较弱。兼活血散瘀消肿。临床多用于疮疡肿毒、乳痈、产后瘀血腹痛、腰痛、胞衣不下等。内服或外敷均可。用量5~15g,水煎服或研末服。外用磨汁涂或锉末敷。阴虚火旺者忌服。       
 
 2.鹿角胶 为鹿角煎熬浓缩而成的胶状物。味甘咸,性温。归肝、肾经。功能补肝肾,益精血。功效虽不如鹿茸之峻猛,但比鹿角为佳,并有良好的止血作用。适用于肾阳不足,精血亏虚,虚劳赢瘦,吐衄便血、崩漏之偏于虚寒者,以及阴疽内陷等。用量 5~15g。用开水或黄酒加温烊化服,或入丸、散膏剂。阴虚火旺者忌服。       
 
 3.鹿角霜 为鹿角熬膏所存残渣。味咸性温,归肝、肾经。功能补肾助阳,似鹿角而力较弱,但具收敛之性,而有涩精、止血、敛疮之功。内服治崩漏、遗精,外用治创伤出血及疮疡久溃不敛。用量10~25g。外用适量。阴虚火旺者忌服。       
 
 【现代研究】        1.化学成分:从鹿茸的脂溶性成分中分离出雌二醇、胆固醇等,其中雌二醇及其在体内的代谢产物—雌酮为鹿茸雌激素样作用的主要成分。鹿茸中的氨基酸,以甘氨酸含量最丰富,还含有中性糖、葡萄糖胺,鹿茸灰分中含有钙、磷、镁等,水浸出物中含多量胶质。       
 
 2.药理作用:大剂量鹿茸精使心缩幅度缩小,心率减慢,并使外周血管扩张,血压降低。中等剂量鹿茸精引起离体心脏活动明显增强,心缩幅度增大,心率加快,结果使心脉搏输出量和百分输出量都增加。鹿茸具有明显的抗脂质过氧化作用及抗应激作用。       
 
 3.临床研究:鹿茸精穴位注射治疗阳痿有效(国医论坛1995,10(5):28);鹿茸精注射液肌内注射可治疗肾虚泄泻(吉林中医药,1985,(2):22);海龙、鹿茸等口服对人体有氧功能和无氧功能具有明显的促进作用,可以加快大强度运动后疲劳的恢复,有很强的抗疲劳作用(中国海洋药物,1995,14(2):41)。

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