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Mutong( Akebia Stem)---八月扎木通(powder100g/bottle)

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It is the rattan and stalk of the caulis hocquartiae,Akebia quinata( Thunb.)Decne.,Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.)Koidz. var.australis( Diels)Rehd., Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz.,family Caulis hocquartiae. It is collected in the autumn. After the stem part is cut, the pith is removed ,it is dried in the shade and the raw form is utilized as medicine.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter and slightly cold; relate to the heart, small intestine and bladder meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Promote diuresis to relieve stranguria; clear away heart-heat; promote menstruation and lactation.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Scanty and brown urine, dripping and astringent pain in urination due to damp-heat in bladder     In treating heat stranguria manifesting with astringent pain in urination, it is often combined with Cheqianzi, Huashi and Bianxue, such as the in Bazheng Powder.

2. Heart-fire flaring-up, manifesting as aphthae, restlessness and darkish urine      This medicinals has the function of clearing away heart-meridian fire in the upper energizer, and eliminaitng small intestine heat, in th lower energizer. It is suitable for treating aphthae,due to flaring up of hart-fire, or heart-fire involving the small intestine. It is marked by restlessness and darkish urine, and is usually combined together with Shengdihuang, Gancao and Zhuye.

3. Amenorrhea and insufficient lactation     In treating amenorrhea, due to blood stasis, it is combined together with Honghua, Danshen and Taoren. Also, to treat post-partum galactostasis, it is often combined with Tongcao, Chuanshanjia and Wangbuliuxing . In addition, it can boiled with Pig's feet and taken orally.

This medicinal also can dredge the collaterals and joints, so it is able to treat dampness-heat type arthralgia, when combined with wind-damp dispelling medicinals.

八月扎木通为木通科植物木通Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne.、三叶木通 Akebia trifoliate (Thunb.) Koidz. 或白木通 Akebia trifoliate (Thunb.) Koidz. Var. australis (Diels) Rehd. 的干燥藤茎。木通主产于陕西、山东、江苏、安徽等地;三叶木通主产于河北、山西、山东、河南等地;白木通主产于西南地区。秋季采收,截取茎部,除去细枝,阴干即得,洗净润透,切片,晒干,生用。

【药性】苦,寒。有毒。归心、小肠、膀胱经。        【功效】利尿通淋,清心火,通经下乳。       
 
【应用】        1.热淋涩痛,水肿。本品能利水消肿,下利湿热,使湿热之邪下行从小便排出。治疗膀胱湿热,小便短赤,淋沥涩痛,常与车前子、滑石等配用;用于水肿,则配以猪苓、桑白皮等同用。       
 2.口舌生疮,心烦尿赤。本品能上清心经之火,下泄小肠之热。常治心火上炎,口舌生疮,或心火下移下肠而致的心烦尿赤等症,多与生地黄、甘草、竹叶等配用。       
 
 3.经闭乳少。本品通经下乳,。用治血瘀经闭,配红花、桃仁、丹参等同用;若用治乳汁短少或不通,可与王不留行、穿山甲等同用;本品还能利血脉,通关节,配桑枝、薏苡仁等同用,治疗湿热痹痛。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,3~6g。     【使用注意】本品不宜过量服或久服,孕妇忌服,内无湿热者、儿童与年老体弱者慎用。       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:木通藤茎含白桦脂醇,齐墩果酸、常春藤皂苷元、木通皂苷Sta、Stb、Stc、Std、Ste、Stf、Stg1、Stg2、Sth、Stj、Stk。此外,淌含豆甾醇、β-谷甾醇、胡萝卜苷、肌醇、蔗糖钾盐。花中含有矢车菊素-3-木糖基-葡萄苷(cyanidin-3-xylglucoside)、矢车菊素-3-对香豆酰基-葡萄糖苷、矢车菊素-3-对香豆酰基-木糖基-葡萄糖苷等。       
 
2.药理作用:本品有利尿、抗菌作用。兔慢性利尿试验,每日腹腔给木通醇浸剂0。5g/kg,连续给药5日,证实有利尿作用,且较肌注0.1mg/kg的汞撒利为强。若给兔灌胃,未见利尿作用,而腹腔注射的利尿作用尿量可增加10.5%,健康人试服则无明显利尿作用;木通醇浸剂(1:20)在体外对革兰阳性菌及革兰阴性杆菌如痢疾杆菌、伤寒杆菌均有抑制作用。木通水浸剂(1:5)对堇色毛癣菌也有不同程度的抑菌作用。       
 
附药 川木通 Chuanmutong        为毛莨科植物小木通Clematis armandii Franch.、或绣球藤 Clematis montana Buch.-Ham.的干燥藤茎。春、秋二季采收。除去粗皮,晒干,或趁鲜切薄片,晒干。性能淡、苦,寒。归心、肺、小肠、膀胱经。效用与关木通相似,亦用治水肿,淋证,口疮,经闭,乳少,关节痹痛。但川木通副作用小。用量,煎服3~6g。       
 
【其他】关木通(Guanmutong)为马兜铃科植物东北马兜 Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom.的藤茎。主产于吉林、辽宁、黑龙江等省。性能苦,寒。有毒。归心、小肠、膀胱经。功能清心火,利小便,通经下乳。用于口舌生疮,心烦尿赤,水肿,热淋涩痛,白带,经闭乳少,湿热痹痛。用量,煎服3~6g。       
 
(关木通所含的马兜铃酸为有毒成分,关木通用量过大,可引起急性肾功能衰竭。甚至死亡。中毒症状表现为上腹不适,继而呕吐、头痛、胸闷、腹胀隐痛、腹泻,或面部浮肿、尿频、尿急,渐起周身浮肿,神志不清等。中毒主要原因为过量服用和久服。        据考证,我国历代本草所记载使用的木通为木通科木通,而非关木通。关木通为我国东北地区习惯用药,有100多年的历史,首载于《中华人民共和国药典》1963年版一部。考虑到近年来国内外有大量的有关关木通引起肾脏损害等不良反应的报道,故有关部门决定用木通或川木通代替关木通,以确保用药安全。   )    

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