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Qianhu (Hogfennel Root)---前胡

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It is the root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn, family Umbelliferae. The roots are dug and colleted in winter and spring when the stem and leaves are withered for before the flower stalks put forth. After the fibrous roots are removed, they are washed clean, the dried in the sunshine and cut into segments. The raw or stir-baked with honey are used.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter, pungent and slightly cold; relate to lung meridian.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Direct qi downward and resolve phlegm; disperse wind-heat.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Phlegm-heat obstructing lung manifested as cough and dyspnea with profuse and yellowish sputum         To treat phlegm-heat obstructing lung causing cough and dyspnea with profuse and yellowish sputum, Qianhua is usually combined with Sangbaipi, Beimu and Xingren, such as Qianhua powder.

2. Stagnation of wind-heat in lung causing cough with profuse sputum       This herb is usually combined with Bohe, Niubangzi and Jiegeng to treat stragnation of wind-heat in lung resulting in cough with profuse sputum.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-9g.

前胡为伞形科植物白花前胡Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn或紫花前胡P.decursivum Maxim.的根。前者主产于浙江、河南、湖南、四川等地;后者主产于江西、安徽、湖南、浙江等地。秋冬季或早春茎叶枯萎或未抽花茎时采挖,除去须根及泥土,晒干,切片生用或蜜炙用。

       【药性】苦、辛,微寒。归肺经。        【功效】降气化痰,疏散风热。       
 
【应用】        1.痰热咳喘。本品辛散苦降,性寒清热,宜于痰热壅肺,肺失宣降之咳喘胸满,咯痰黄稠量多,常配杏仁、桑白皮、贝母等药,如前胡散(《圣惠方》);因本品寒性不大,亦可用于湿痰、寒痰证,常与白前相须为用。       
 
 2.风热咳嗽。本品味辛性微寒,又能疏散风热,宣发肺气,化痰止咳。治外感风热,身热头痛,咳嗽痰多,常配桑叶、牛蒡子、桔梗等同用;配辛温发散,宣肺之品如荆芥、紫苏等同用,也可治风寒咳嗽,如杏苏散(《温病条辨》)。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,6~10g;或入丸、散。       
 
【鉴别用药】白前与前胡,均能降气化痰,治疗肺气上逆,咳喘痰多,常相须为用。但白前性温,祛痰作用较强,多用于内伤寒痰咳喘;前胡性偏寒,兼能疏散风热,尤多用于外感风热或痰热咳喘。       
【古籍摘要】        1.《名医别录》:“主疗痰满,胸胁中痞,心腹结气,风头痛,去痰实,下气。治伤寒寒热,推陈致新,明目益精。”       
 
2.《本草纲目》:“清肺热,化痰热,散风邪。”        3.《药义明辨》:“其功先在散结,结散则气下,而痰亦降,所以为痰气要药”       
 
【现代研究】        1.白花前胡含挥发油及白花前胡内酯甲、乙、丙、丁;紫花前胡含挥发油,前胡苷、前胡素、伞形花内酯等。       
 
2.药理作用:紫花前胡有较好的祛痰作用,作用时间长,其效力与桔梗相当;甲醇总提取物能抑制炎症初期血管通透性,对溃疡有明显抑制作用,还有解痉作用;能延长巴比妥钠的睡眠时间,有镇静作用。白花前胡提取粗精和正丁醇提取物能增加冠脉血流量,但不影响心率及心肌收缩力;伞形花内酯能抑制鼻咽癌KB细胞的生长。       
 
 3.临床研究:前胡粉口服治疗菌痢,效果显著,对慢性肠炎也有较好疗效(浙江中医杂志,1981,8:358);麻黄、前胡2味,煎汁,稍加白糖频服,治疗小儿腹泻138例,药后临床症状消失126例,占91.3%(浙江中医杂志,1988,9:403);白花前胡,水煎服治慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并继发性肺动脉高压患者,对血流动力学、血气及其它指标均有明显改善(中国医科大学学报,1994,2:122)。

 


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