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Qinghao ( Sweet Wormwood hearb)---青蒿(powder100g/bottle)

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Product Description

qinghao-yuantai-l.jpgqinghao-yaocai-l.jpg010.png

Qinghao is the dried above ground part of Artemisia annua, L. pertaining to Compositae. It is collected in summer and fall when it is ready to blossom. After old stems are removed, it is dried in the shade and then cut into segments.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter, pungent and cold; relate to liver and gallbladder meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Clear deficiency-heat; cool blood, cure bone-steaming, relieve summer- heat and check malaria.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 6-12g. It is decocted late, or the fresh one is ground into juice for use.

[ Precautions ]: Avoid with weakness of spleen and stomach, and diarrhea due to slippery intestines.

Annotation: Artemisia japonica Thunb., pertainint to Compositae, in some area also used as Qinghao, is similar in efficacies to Artemisia annua L. except for checking malaria.
 
[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Malaria, chills and fever   Qinghao usually treats malaria with summer-heat in larger dosage than common use. Use the fresh one in large dosage with water, by grinding it into juice for oral administration to treat alternating chills and fever in malaria. For alternating chills and fever similar to malaria, also with oppression in chest and vomiting, it is combined with Huangqin, Huashi and Banxia; for example in Haoqin Decoction.
 
2. Warm pathogen damaging yin, night fever relieved in the morning    It is good at clearing latent fever in yin-level. For night fever relieved in the morning or fever relieved without sweating due to pathogen entering yin level, or lingering low fever in the later stage of warm disease, usually it is combined with Biejia, Mudanpi and Shengdidhung; for example in Qinghao Biejia Decoction.
 
3. Yin feficiency with fever, phthisic fever and  bone-steaming    It treats fever, bone-steaming, phthistic fever, tidal fever, night sweat, feverish sensation in palms and soles due to yin deficiency, usually combined with Yinchaihua, Huhuanglian and Zhimu; for example in Qinggu Powder.
 
4. External contraction of summer-heat, fever and dizziness       For external contraction of summer-heat, manifesting as dizziness, headache, fever and thirst, it is in combination with Lianqiao, Xiguacuiyi and Huashi.

青蒿为菊科植物黄花蒿Artemisia annua L.的干燥地上部分。全国大部地区均有分布。夏秋季花将开时采割,除去老茎。鲜用或阴干,切段生用。
      
【药性】苦、辛,寒。归肝、胆经。       
 
【功效】清透虚热,凉血除蒸,解暑,截疟。       
 
【应用】        1.温邪伤阴,夜热早凉。本品苦寒清热,辛香透散,长于清透阴分伏热,故可用治温病后期,余热未清,邪伏阴分,伤阴劫液,夜热早凉,热退无汗,或热病后低热不退等,常与鳖甲、知母、丹皮、生地等同用,如青蒿鳖甲汤(《温病条辨》)。       
 
2.阴虚发热,劳热骨蒸。本品苦寒,入肝走血,具有清退虚热,凉血除蒸的作用。用治阴虚发热,骨蒸劳热,潮热盗汗,五心烦热,舌红少苔者,常与银柴胡、胡黄连、知母、鳖甲等同用,如清骨散(《证治准绳》)。       
 
3.暑热外感,发热口渴。本品苦寒清热,芳香而散,善解暑热,故可用治外感暑热,头昏头痛,发热口渴等症,常与连翘、滑石、西瓜翠衣等同用,如清凉涤暑汤(《时病论》)。       
 
 4.疟疾寒热。本品辛寒芳香,主入肝胆,截疟之功甚强,尤善除疟疾寒热,为治疗疟疾之良药。如《肘后方》单用较大剂量鲜品捣汁服,或随证配伍黄芩、滑石、青黛、通草等同用。本品芳香透散,又长于清解肝胆之热邪,可与黄芩、滑石、半夏等药同用,治疗湿热郁遏少阳三焦,气机不利,寒热如虐,胸痞作呕之证,如蒿芩清胆汤(《通俗伤寒论》)。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,6~12g,不宜久煎;或鲜用绞汁服。     【使用注意】脾胃虚弱,肠滑泄泻者忌服。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《本草纲目》:“治疟疾寒热。”        2.《本草新编》:“退暑热。”        3.《医林纂要》:“清血中湿热,治黄疸及郁火不舒之证。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品主要含有倍半萜类、黄酮类、香豆素类、挥发性成分及其他β-半乳糖苷酶、β-葡萄糖苷酶、β-谷甾醇等。倍半萜类有青蒿素、青蒿酸、青蒿醇、青蒿酸甲酯等。黄酮类有3,4-二羟基-6,7,3’,4’-四甲氧基黄酮醇、猫眼草黄素、猫眼草酚等。香豆素类有香豆素、6-甲氧基-7-羟基香豆素、东莨菪内酯等。挥发性成分中以茨烯、β-茨烯、异蒿酮、左旋樟脑、β-丁香烯、β-菠烯为主,另含α菠烯、蒿酮、樟脑等。       
 
 2.药理作用:本品乙醚提取中性部分和其稀醇浸膏有显著抗疟作用,青蒿素及衍生物具有抗动物血吸虫的作用。青蒿素、青蒿醚、青蒿琥酯均能促进机体细胞的免疫作用。青蒿素可减慢心率、抑制心肌收缩力、降低冠脉流量以及降低血压。青蒿对多种细菌、病毒具有杀伤作用。有较好的解热、镇痛作用,与金银花有协同作用,退热迅速而持久。蒿甲醚有辐射防护作用。青蒿素对实验性矽肺有明显疗效。研究表明青蒿琥酯在体外对人肝癌细胞有明显的细胞毒作用,口服体内实验对小鼠肝癌有抗肝肿瘤作用,并与5-氟尿密啶有协同抗癌作用。此外,青蒿的特殊毒性实验结果提示,青蒿素可能有遗传毒性,青蒿酯钠有明显的胚胎毒作用,妊娠早期给药,可致胚胎骨髓发育迟缓。       
 
3.临床研究:据报道,青蒿及其制剂是治疗疟疾的常用药,其所含青蒿素是抗虐的主要成分,对各型疟疾均疗效突出,且速效、低毒,临床治愈率100%。同时还可用于其他多种疾病,如:用青蒿水溶部分制成片剂,每片相当生药1.5 g,治疗感冒、流行性感冒、急慢性支气管炎、肺炎、尿道感染等所致高热44例,有效率在80%以上(中药临床新用2000:370);民间常用鲜青蒿搓烂塞鼻,或用蒸馏法将鲜青蒿制成滴鼻剂,治疗鼻出血36例,痊愈36例;或将青蒿研末炼蜜为丸36~54g(生药量)或直接服用青蒿素0.3~0.6g,治疗盘形红斑狼疮21例,缓解或基本缓解12例,有效6例;也有报道用青蒿或青蒿醚治疗口腔粘膜扁平苔癣30例,显效14例,好转11例 (中华临床中药学1998:632)。此外,青蒿及其制剂尚可用于神经性皮炎、癌症发热、日本血吸虫病以及急性黄疸型肝炎等。       
 
 4.不良反应:低毒性是青蒿的重要特点之一。青蒿浸膏片治疗疟疾,仅少数病例(3.4%)出现恶心、呕吐、腹痛和腹泻;青蒿素水混悬液肌注有轻度疼痛;青蒿素注射液偶可引起过敏反应,应予注意。      
 
  【其他】同属植物牡蒿A.japonica Thunb.在我国部分地区也作青蒿用,与黄花蒿某些功效相似,但无截疟作用,应予鉴别。

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