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Qinjiao ( Large-leaf Gentian Root)---秦艽(powder100g/bottle)

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The source is from the root of Gentiana macrophylla Pall., Gentiana straminea Maxim., Gentiana. crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk. and Gentiana. dahurica Fisch., family Gentianaceae. First three types are called Qinjiao and Mahuajiao according to different properties, and the last type is called Xiaoqinjiao. It is dug and collected in the srping and autumn. After the earth and sand is removed, it is cut into pieces and the crude one is for use.

[ Medicinal Proerties ]: Pungent, bitter, neutral; relate to the stomach, liver and bladder meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Expel wind and dampness; unblock collaterals to relieve pain; clear deficient-heat and remove damp-heat.

[ Usage and dosage ]: 3-9g.
[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. By-syndrome of wind-dampness     It is suitable for pain and spasms of tendons of bi-syndrome of wind-dampness whatever is cold or heat, short or long. It tends to be cold and it is good especially for heat-bi. It is always used together with Fangji, Luoshiteng and Rengdongteng, etc. For bi-syndrome of wind-cold-dampness, it is in combinatin with Tianma, Qianghuo, Danggui and Chuanxiong, etc. Large amount can be used alone to treat hemiplegia, slanting mouth and eyes, spasm of limbs due to stroke. For stroke of deficiency of blood, it is in combination with such medicinals tonifying blood as Danggui, Shuihuang and Baishao,etc.
 
2. Bone-steaming tidal fever      It is usually used together with Qinghao, Digupi and Zhimu, etc.,such as in Qinjiao Biejia Powder. It is also used to treat infantile fever of malnutrition with accumulation.
 
3. Jaundice of dampness-heat      It can be used together with Yinchen, Zhizi and Dahuang, etc. to enhance its actions.

秦艽为龙胆科植物秦艽Gentiana macrophylla Pall.、麻花秦艽G.straminea Maxim.、粗茎秦艽G.crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk.或小秦艽G.dahurica Fiseh.的干燥根。前三种按性状不同分别习称“秦艽”和“麻花艽”,后一种习称“小秦艽”。主产于陕西、甘肃、内蒙古、四川等地。春、秋二季采挖,除去泥沙;秦艽及麻花艽晒软,堆置“发汗”至表面呈红黄色或灰黄色时,摊开晒干,或不经“发汗”直接晒干;小秦艽趁鲜时挫去黑皮,晒干。切片,生用。
      
【药性】辛、苦,平。归胃、肝、胆经。       
 
【功效】袪风湿,通络止痛,退虚热,清湿热。       
 
【应用】        1.风湿痹证。本品辛散苦泄,质偏润而不燥,为风药中之润剂。风湿痹痛,筋脉拘挛,骨节酸痛,无问寒热新久均可配伍应用。其性偏寒,兼有清热作用,故对热痹尤为适宜,多配防己、牡丹皮、络石藤、忍冬藤等;若配天麻、羌活、当归、川芎等,可治风寒湿痹,如秦艽天麻汤(《医学心悟》)。       
 
 2.中风不遂。本品既能袪风邪,舒筋络,又善“活血荣筋”,可用于中风半身不遂,口眼喎斜,四肢拘急,舌强不语等,单用大量水煎服即能奏效。若与升麻、葛根、防风、芍药等配伍,可治中风口眼喎斜,言语不利,恶风恶寒者,如秦艽升麻汤(《卫生宝鉴》);与当归、熟地、白芍、川芎等同用,可治血虚中风者,如秦艽汤(《不知医必要》)。       
 
 3.骨蒸潮热,疳积发热。本品能退虚热,除骨蒸,亦为治虚热要药。治骨蒸日晡潮热,常与青蒿、地骨皮、知母等同用,如秦艽鳖甲散(《卫生宝鉴》);若与人参、鳖甲、柴胡等配伍,可治肺痿骨蒸劳嗽,如秦艽扶羸汤(《杨氏家藏方》);治小儿疳积发热,多与薄荷、炙甘草相伍,如秦艽散(《小儿药证直诀》)。      
 
  4.湿热黄疸。本品苦以降泄,能清肝胆湿热而退黄。《海上集验方》即单用为末服;亦可与茵陈蒿、栀子、大黄等配伍,如山茵陈丸(《圣济总录》)。        此外,本品尚能治痔疮、肿毒等。       
【用法用量】煎服,3~9g。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主寒热邪气,寒湿风痹,肢节痛,下水,利小便。”        2.《名医别录》:“疗风无问久新,通身挛急。”        3.《冯氏锦囊秘录》:“秦艽风药中之润剂,散药中之补剂,故养血有功。中风多用之者,取祛风活络,养血舒筋。盖治风先治血,血行风自灭耳。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含秦艽碱甲、乙、丙,龙胆苦苷,当药苦苷,褐煤酸,褐煤酸甲酯,栎瘿酸,α-香树脂醇,β-谷甾醇等。       
 
2.药理作用:秦艽具有镇静、镇痛、解热、抗炎作用;能抑制反射性肠液的分泌;能明显降低胸腺指数,有抗组胺作用;对病毒、细菌、真菌皆有一定的抑制作用。秦艽碱甲能降低血压、升高血糖;龙胆苦苷能抑制CCl4所致转氨酶升高,具有抗肝炎作用。       
 
3.临床研究:用秦艽注射液肌内注射,用于风寒引起的周身疼痛,以及多年风湿性腰腿痛,均有止痛效果;治疗风湿性和类风湿性关节炎,有显著的镇痛、消肿、退热和恢复关节功能的作用。又据报道:每6小时肌内注射秦艽注射液1次,每次2~5ml(每1ml含生药0.625g),治疗脑脊髓膜炎21例,3~7天治愈(哈尔滨中医,1960,5:27);将秦艽、防己各等份研末,术前半小时服0.6g,术后每6小时服1次,预防牙拔除并发症36例,有显著的止痛和消肿效果(冶金医学,1987,1:73)。       
 
4.不良反应:曾有报道4例风湿性关节炎患者,口服秦艽碱甲100mg,1日3次,共4~13天,先后均出现恶心、呕吐等反应。1例患者服lOOmg后感心悸及心率减缓,但很快恢复。       
 
【其他】各地作秦艽药用的尚有:天山秦艽 G.tianschanica Rupr.;西藏秦艽 G. tibetica King ex Hook. f.;中亚秦艽 G. kaufmanniana Regel et Schmalh.;管花秦艽 G. siphonantha Maxim. ex Kusnez.;斜生秦艽 G.decumbens L. f。

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