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Shengdihuang ( Raw Rehmannia Root )---生地黄(powder100g/bottle)

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Shengdihuang is the fresh or dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., pertaining to Scrophulariaceae It is collected in fall. The root-head, fibrous root, earth and sands should be removed. The fresh for is used or after dried.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Sweet , bitter and cold; relate to heart, liver and kidney meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Clear heat, cool blood; nourish yin and generate fluids

[ Usagd and Dosage ]: 9-15g. The dosage is doubled when the fresh form is used. Also the fresh can be pounded into juice for adminstration.

[ Precautions ]: Be cautious with abdominal distension and loose stool due to spleen insufficiency and damp accumulation.
 
[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Heat entering nutrient-blood, purple tongue, agitation and thirst, macula, haematemesis and epistaxis    Shengdihuang is the most significant medicinal to clear heat, cool blood and stop bleeding. In case of heat entering nutrient-blood in warm disease, manifesting as high ever, agitation, thirst, coma and purple tongue, it is usually combined with Lianqiao, Xuanshen and Danshen ; for example in Qingying Decoction. It treats hematochezia and hematuria usually combined with Diyu.
 
2. Yin deficiency with internal heat, bone-steaming and tidal fever     For bone-steaming and tidal fever due to yin deficiency with internal heat, it is combinted with Zhimu and Digupi. In case of night fever relived in morning, reddish tongue and rapid pulse, usually it is combined with Qinghao, Biejia and Zhimu; for example in Qinghao Biejia Decoction.
 
3. Fluid consumption, thirst, internal heat, Xiaoke( diabetes), intestinal dryness and constipation    It treats agitation, thirst and polydipsia due to heat disease with damage to yin, combined with Maidong, Shashen and Yuzhu. For xiaoke ( diabetes), it is usually combined with Gegen, Tianghuafen and Wuweizi. Also it treats constipation due to intestinal dryness, combined with Xuanshen and Maidong; for example in Zengye Decoction.

生地黄为玄参科植物地黄Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.的新鲜或干燥块根。主产于河南、河北、内蒙古及东北。全国大部分地区有栽培。秋季采挖,去除芦头、须根及泥沙。鲜用,或干燥生用。
 
【药性】甘、苦,寒。归心、肝、肾经。       
 
【功效】清热凉血,养阴生津。       
 
【应用】        1.热入营血,舌绛烦渴、斑疹吐衄。本品苦寒入营血分,为清热、凉血、止血之要药,又其性甘寒质润,能清热生津止渴 ,故常用治温热病热入营血,壮热烦渴、神昏舌绛者,多配玄参、连翘、丹参等药用,如清营汤(《温病条辨》);若治血热吐衄,常与大黄同用,如大黄散(《伤寒总病论》);若治血热便血、尿血,常与地榆同用,如两地丹(《石室秘录》);若治血热崩漏或产后下血不止、心神烦乱,可配益母草用,如地黄酒(《圣惠方》)。       
 
2.阴虚内热,骨蒸劳热。本品甘寒养阴,苦寒泄热,入肾经而滋阴降火,养阴津而泄伏热。治阴虚内热,潮热骨蒸,可配知母、地骨皮用,如地黄膏(《古今医统》);若配青蒿、鳖甲、知母等用,可治温病后期,余热未尽,阴津已伤,邪伏阴分,症见夜热早凉、舌红脉数者,如青蒿鳖甲汤(《温病条辨》)。       
 
3.津伤口渴,内热消渴,肠燥便秘。本品甘寒质润,既能清热养阴,又能生津止渴。用治热病伤阴,烦渴多饮,常配麦冬、沙参、玉竹等药用,如益胃汤(《温病条辨》);治阴虚内热之消渴证,可配山药、黄芪、山茱萸用,如滋?饮(《医学衷中参西录》);若治温病津伤,肠燥便秘,可配玄参、麦冬用,如增液汤(《温病条辨》)。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,10—15g。鲜品用量加倍,或以鲜品捣汁入药。       
 
 【使用注意】脾虚湿滞,腹满便溏者不宜使用。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主折跌绝筋,伤中,逐血痹,填骨髓,长肌肉,作汤除寒热积聚,除痹。生者尤良。”       
 
 2.《珍珠囊》:“凉血,生血,补肾水真阴。”       
 
3.《本经逢原》:“干地黄,内专凉血滋阴,外润皮肤荣泽,病人虚而有热者宜加用之。戴元礼曰,阴微阳盛,相火炽强,来乘阴位,日渐煎熬,阴虚火旺之症,宜生地黄以滋阴退阳。浙产者,专于凉血润燥,病人元气本亏,因热邪闭结,而舌干焦黑,大小便秘,不胜攻下者,用此于清热药中,通其秘结最佳,以其有润燥之功,而无滋腻之患也。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含梓醇、二氢梓醇、单密力特苷、乙酰梓醇、桃叶珊瑚苷、密力特苷、地黄苷、去羟栀子苷、筋骨草苷、辛酸、苯甲酸、苯乙酸、葡萄糖、蔗糖、果糖及铁、锌、锰、铬等20多种微量元素、β-谷甾醇等。鲜地黄含20多种氨基酸,其中精氨酸含量最高。干地黄中含有15种氨基酸,其中丙氨酸含量最高。       
 
 2.药理作用:本品水提液有降压、镇静、抗炎、抗过敏作用;其流浸膏有强心、利尿作用;其乙醇提取物有缩短凝血时间的作用;以其为主药的六味地黄丸有降血压、改善肾功能、抗肿瘤作用;地黄有对抗连续服用地塞米松后血浆皮质酮浓度的下降,并能防止肾上腺皮质萎缩的作用,具有促进机体淋巴母细胞的转化、增加T淋巴细胞数量的作用,并能增强网状内皮细胞的吞噬功能,特别对免疫功能低下者作用更明显。       
 
3.临床研究:结合传统上用本品治疗血热出血证,现代临床用以治疗原发性血小板减少性紫癜、功能性子宫出血等疾病;用生地黄120g,黄芩60g,苦参30g,水煎服,治疗红斑狼疮性肢痛20例,临床全部治愈(山东中医杂志,1981,2:93);用生地黄、黄柏、知母、玄参等药制成浓缩合剂内服,治疗女性特发性性早熟51例,有显著疗效(中国中西医结合杂志,2001,10:732);重用生地黄配黄芪、太子参、麦冬、丹皮、茯苓,水煎服,治疗病毒性心肌炎30例,总有效率70%(上海中医药杂志,2001,3:19);
 
此外,临床还用生地黄治疗风湿及风湿性关节炎、席汉综合征、湿疹、神经性皮炎、荨麻疹、便秘等疾病。生地注射液可用于传染性肝炎、糖尿病神经病变患者。       

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