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Shengma ( Rhizoma Cimicifugae)---升麻(powder100g/bottle)

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Product Description

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Shengma is the dried rhizome of Cimicifuga heracleifoliaKom, Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz) Maxim. or Cimicifuga foetida L, pertaining to Ranunculaceae. It is collected in spring. After the fibrous root is removed , itis sun dried, and then cut into slices. The raw formis used or after processed with honey.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Pungent, slightly sweet and slightly cold; relate to lung, spleen, stomach, and large intestine meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Relieve exterior, promote eruption; clear heat, relieve toxicity; raise yang qi.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-9 g. To raise yang qi and lift sinking, it is stir-baked with liquid.

[ Precautions ]: For it tends to lift and float, avoid with yin deficiency and yang floating, cough, fullness in chest, reversed flow of qi, and measles erupted.
 
[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. External contraction of exterior syndrome     Shengma treats cold due to wind-heat, or early stage of warm disease, both manifesting as fever and headache, in combination with sangye, Juhua and Bohe. Also it treats common cold due to wind-cold with aversion to cold, fever, no sweat, headache and cough, in combination with Mahuang, Zisu and Baizhi.
 
2. Measles failing to erupt     It treats in the early stage measles failing to erupt, in combination with Gegen Baishao and Gancao; for example in Shengma Gegen Decoction.
 
3. Swollen and sore throat, toothache, stomatitis, pestilential toxin and macula    It  is indicated for various diseases caused by heat toxin. It can treat swollen gum with pain, stomatitis, in combination with Shengshigao and Huanglian, sucha as in Qingwei Powder. For swollen-head infections due to wind-heat and epidemic toxin up attacking, manifesting as reddish and swollen head and face, swollen and sore throat, it is in combination with Huangqin, Huanglian and Xuanshen; for example in Puji Xiaodu Decoction.
 
4. Qi deficiency with sinking, visceral prolapse, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis, hematochezia      It treats chronic diarrhea, and prolapse of rectum, uterus and kidneys, due to qi deficiency with sinking, in combination with Huangqi, Renshen and Chaihu, such as in Buzhong Yiqi Decoction.

升麻为毛茛科植物大三叶升麻Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom.、兴安升麻Cimicifuga dahurica(Turcz.)Maxim.或升麻Cimicifuga foetida L.的干燥根茎。主产于辽宁、吉林、黑龙江,河北、山西、陕西、四川、青海等省亦产。秋季采挖,除去泥沙,晒至须根干时,燎去或除去须根,晒干。切片,生用或蜜制用。
 
【药性】辛、微甘,微寒。归肺、脾、胃、大肠经。       
 
【功效】解表透疹,清热解毒,升举阳气。       
 
【应用】        1.外感表证。本品辛甘微寒,性能升散,有发表退热之功。治疗风热感冒,温病初起,发热、头痛等症,可与桑叶、菊花、薄荷、连翘等同用。治疗风寒感冒,恶寒发热,无汗,头痛,咳嗽者,常配伍麻黄、紫苏、白芷、川芎等药,如十神汤(《和剂局方》)。若外感风热夹湿之阳明经头痛,额前作痛,呕逆,心烦痞满者,可与苍术、葛根、鲜荷叶等配伍,如清震汤(《症因脉治》)。       
2.麻疹不透。本品能辛散发表,透发麻疹,用治麻疹初起,透发不畅,常与葛根、白芍、甘草等同用,如升麻葛根汤(《阎氏小儿方论》)。若麻疹欲出不出,身热无汗,咳嗽咽痛,烦渴尿赤者,常配伍葛根、薄荷、牛蒡子、荆芥等药,如宣毒发表汤(《痘疹仁端录》)。      
 
  3.齿痛口疮,咽喉肿痛,温毒发斑。本品甘寒,以清热解毒功效见长,为清热解毒之良药,可用治热毒所致的多种病证。因其尤善清解阳明热毒,故胃火炽盛成毒的牙龈肿痛、口舌生疮、咽肿喉痛以及皮肤疮毒等尤为多用。治疗牙龈肿痛、口舌生疮,多与生石膏、黄连等同用,如清胃散(《兰室秘藏》)。治疗风热疫毒上攻之大头瘟,头面红肿,咽喉肿痛,常与黄芩、黄连、玄参、板蓝根等药配伍,如普济消毒饮(《东垣试效方》)。治疗痄腮肿痛,可与黄连、连翘、牛蒡子等药配伍,如升麻黄连汤(《外科枢要》)。用治温毒发斑,常与生石膏、大青叶、紫草等同用。       
 
4.气虚下陷,脏器脱垂,崩漏下血。本品入脾胃经,善引脾胃清阳之气上升,其升提之力较柴胡为强。故常用治中气不足,气虚下陷所致的脘腹重坠作胀,食少倦怠,久泻脱肛,子宫下垂,肾下垂等脏器脱垂,多与黄芪、人参、柴胡等同用,以补气升阳,如补中益气汤(《脾胃论》);若胸中大气下陷,气短不足以息,又常以本品配柴胡、黄芪、桔梗等同用,如升陷汤(《医学衷中参西录》)。治疗气虚下陷,月经量多或崩漏者,则以本品配伍人参、黄芪、白术等补中益气药,如举元煎(《景岳全书》)。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,3~9g。发表透疹、清热解毒宣生用,升阳举陷宜炙用。       
 
【使用注意】麻疹已透,阴虚火旺,以及阴虚阳亢者,均当忌用。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主解百毒,辟温疾、障邪。”        2.《名医别录》:“主中恶腹痛,时气毒疬,头痛寒热,风肿诸毒,喉痛口疮。”        3.《滇南本草》:“表小儿痘疹,解疮毒,咽喉(肿),喘咳音哑,肺热,止齿痛,乳蛾,痄腮。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含升麻碱、水杨酸、咖啡酸、阿魏酸、鞣质等;兴安升麻含升麻苦味素、升麻醇、升麻醇木糖苷、北升麻醇、异阿巍酸、齿阿米素、齿阿米醇、升麻素、皂苷等。     2.药理作用:升麻对结核杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和卡他球菌有中度抗菌作用。北升麻提取物具有解热、抗炎、镇痛、抗惊厥、升高白细胞、抑制血小板聚集及释放等作用。升麻对氯化乙酰胆碱、组织胺和氯化钡所致的肠管痉挛均有一定的抑制作用,还具有抑制心脏、减慢心率、降低血压、抑制肠管和妊娠子宫痉挛等作用。其生药与炭药均能缩短凝血时间。       
3.临床研究:①升麻、乳香、没药各20g,漏芦、芒硝(冲服)、黄芩、独活各13g,黄柏30g,栀子、甘草各10g,儿童酌减,先熏洗患处,后浸泡,中午、晚上各一次,每次20~30min,治疗化脓性感染取得了较好的疗效(四川中医,1999,17(4): 42)。
②采用升麻连苡汤(升麻10g,连翘10g,薏苡仁20g,丹参10g,徐长卿15g,地肤15g,白鲜皮15g,苏叶10g,生甘草4g),水煎服,治疗多型渗出性红斑患者82例,取得了较满意的效果(湖南中医杂志,1999,15(1): 18)。
③采用升麻贯众汤(升麻10g,贯众12g,白芷10g,金银花10g,苦参6g,蒲公英10g,紫草6g,丹皮6g,千里光12g,甘草10g,绣球防风10g,蝉蜕6g)治疗神经性皮炎,取得了较好疗效(云南中医学院学报,2000,23(1):38)。
④大黄配升麻功用清热泻火、凉血止血,主治头面部器官衄血。大黄功能活血逐瘀,瘀血祛则血归经,如此则不出血而血必止,大黄性沉降,对牙齿鼻耳目诸衄等表现上部的疾患,须配合升麻,一则与升麻共成高屋建瓴之势,再则又可以利用升麻的散火毒,解火郁之功,从而起协调作用(时珍国医国药,1999,10(9): 725)。
此外,升麻还可用治产后尿潴留、莨菪类药物中毒、副鼻窦炎、多发性皮肌炎、系统性红斑狼疮、婴幼儿秋季腹泻、痔疮、帕金森氏综合征等多种病症。

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