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Shicangpu(Grassleaf Sweetflag Rhizome)---石菖蒲(powder100g/bottle)

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It is the dried rootstalk of Acorus tatarinowill Schott, family Araceae. It is harvested and collected during autumn and winter. Afterthe fibrous root and dusts are removed, it is dried in the sunshine and then can be used in its raw form.

[ Medicial Properties ]: Pungent, bitter and warm; relate to heart and stomach meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Eliminate dampness and stimulate appetite; regain consciousness through dispelling phlegm; induce resuscitation and strengthen intelligence.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-9g.The amount is doubled when using the fresh form. The appropriate amount is used for external application.

[ Annotation ]: In ancient classics is saying of " Changpu with nine sticks" ,which means those Cahngpu with nine sticks are ofthe best quality. Changpu with nine stick utilized today is mainly from the rhizoma of perennial Anemone altaica. Fisch , family buttercup. It should not be confused with Shichangpu.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Accumulation of phlegm and coma of sthenia type      It is especially used for coma of sthenia type due to the accumulation of phlegm-dampness and turbidity and it is usually combined with Yujin and Banxia, such as in the Changzhu Yujin  Decoction.

2. Fullness of the chest and stomach, distending and oppressive pain    It may be used to treat the stagnation of dampness in the energizer, manifesting as fullness of the chest and stomach, accompanied with pain caused by stuffiness and fullness. In this case it is combined together with Sharen, Cangzhu and Houpu. In cases of distension and oppression in the chest and stomach, with a yellowish and greasy tongue coating, it is combined with Huanglian and Houpu; for example in the Lianpu Decoction.

3. Anorectic dysentery    When treating dysentery and tenesmus with the inability to eat food caused by accumulation of heat-toxin, it is used in combination with Huanglian, Fuling and Shilianzi.

4. Insomnia and forgetfulness, tinnitus and deafness     When used for forgetfulness, tinnitus and deafness, it is usually combined with Yuanzhi, Fuling and Longchi, as in the AnshengdingZhi Pill. In treating memory problems, it is often used with Renshen and Fuling.

In addition, it can also be used for hoarse voice, carbuncle and ulcer, rheumatism, Bi-syndrome pain as well as physical trauma.

石菖蒲为天南星科植物石菖蒲Acorus tatarinowii Schott.的干燥根茎,我国长江流域以南各省均有分布,主产于四川、浙江、江苏等地。秋、冬二季采挖,除去须根及泥砂,晒干。生用。

 【药性】辛、苦,温。归心、胃经。       
 
【功效】开窍醒神,化湿和胃,宁神益志。       
 
【应用】        1.痰蒙清窍,神志昏迷。本品辛开苦燥温通,芳香走窜,不但有开窍醒神之功,且兼具化湿,豁痰,辟秽之效。故擅长治痰湿秽浊之邪蒙蔽清窍所致之神志昏乱。治中风痰迷心窍,神志昏乱、舌强不能语,常与半夏、天南星、橘红等燥湿化痰药合用,如涤痰汤(《济生方》);若治痰热蒙蔽,高热、神昏谵语者,常与郁金、半夏、竹沥等配伍,如菖蒲郁金汤(《温病全书》);治痰热癫痫抽搐,可与枳实、竹茹、黄连等配伍,如清心温胆汤(《古今医鉴》);治癫狂痰热内盛者,可与远志、朱砂、生铁落同用,如生铁落饮(《医学心悟》);用治湿浊蒙蔽,头晕,嗜睡,健忘,耳鸣,耳聋等症,又常与茯苓、远志、龙骨等配伍,如安神定志丸(《医学心悟》)。       
 
2.湿阻中焦,脘腹痞满,胀闷疼痛。本品辛温芳香,善化湿浊、醒脾胃、行气滞、消胀满。用治湿浊中阻,脘闷腹胀、痞塞疼痛,常与砂仁、苍术、厚朴同用;若湿从热化、湿热蕴伏、身热吐利、胸脘痞闷、舌苔黄腻者,可与黄连、厚朴等配伍,如连朴饮(《霍乱论》)。       
 
3.噤口痢。本品芳香化湿、燥湿,又行胃肠之气。治疗湿浊、热毒蕴结肠中所致之水谷不纳,痢疾后重等,可与黄连、茯苓、石莲子等配伍,如开噤散(《医学心悟》)。       
 
4.健忘,失眠,耳鸣,耳聋。本品入心经,开心窍、益心智、安心神、聪耳明目,故可用于上述诸症。治健忘证,常与人参、茯苓、菖蒲等配伍,如不忘散(《证治准绳》)、开心散(《千金方》);治劳心过度、心神失养引发的失眠、多梦、心悸怔忡,常与人参、白术、龙眼肉及酸枣仁、茯神、朱砂等配伍,如安神定志丸(《杂病源流犀烛》);治心肾两虚、耳鸣耳聋、头昏、心悸,常与菟丝子、女贞子、旱莲草及丹参、夜交藤等配伍,如安神补心丸(《中药制剂手册》)。      
 
 此外,还可用于声音嘶哑、痈疽疮疡、风湿痹痛、跌打损伤等证。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,3~9g。鲜品加倍。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主风寒湿痹,咳逆上气,开心孔,补五脏,通九窍,明耳目,出音声。久服轻身,不忘,不迷惑,延年。”       
 
2.《本草纲目》:“治中恶卒死,客忤癫痫,下血崩中,安胎漏,散痈肿。”       
 
 3.《本草从新》:“辛苦而温,芳香而散,开心孔,利九窍,明耳目,发声音,去湿除风,逐痰消积,开胃宽中,疗噤口毒痢。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含挥发油0.11%~0.42%,其中主要为β-细辛醚、α-细辛醚、石竹烯、α-葎草烯、石菖醚、细辛醚等,尚含有氨基酸、有机酸和糖类。       
 
 2.药理作用:石菖蒲水煎剂、挥发油、或细辛醚、β-细辛醚均有镇静作用和抗惊厥作用;对豚鼠离体气管和回肠有很强的解痉作用;石菖蒲挥发油静脉注射有肯定的平喘作用,与舒喘灵吸入后的即时疗效相似;石菖蒲挥发油对大鼠由乌头碱诱发的心律失常有一定治疗作用,并能对抗由肾上腺素或氯化钡诱发的心律失常,挥发油治疗量时还有减慢心律作用;煎剂可促进消化液分泌,制止胃肠的异常发酵;高浓度浸出液对常见致病性皮肤真菌有抑制作用。       
 
3.临床研究:华东地区38家医院用石菖蒲注射液(石菖蒲0.5%总挥发油溶液)治疗肺性脑病279例次,总有效率为74.9%(中成药研究,1990,2:37);以石菖蒲、川芎、干地龙各10g,鸡血藤、泽泻各25g制成口服液(每ml含生药1g),治疗脑梗塞36例,总有效率为88.89%(中国中西医结合杂志,1994,2:117);以石菖蒲煎剂(每30ml含石菖蒲干品10g)治疗癫痫60例,结果显效17例,有效28例,有效率75%(中华医学杂志,1978,1:62);以四七汤(制半夏、朱茯苓、石菖蒲、枳实、郁金)加味治疗老年性痴呆30例,与对照组脑复新相比疗效显著,对老年性痴呆、中风合并痴呆有良好治疗作用(陕西中医,1996,3:112)。
 
另有用单味菖蒲煎服治疗神经性呕吐,以石菖蒲复方治疗脑震荡后遗症、神经衰弱、心肌梗死、失音、慢性咽喉疾患等。       
 
【其它】古代文献称菖蒲以“一寸九节者良”,故本品亦称为九节菖蒲。但现代所用之九节菖蒲为毛茛科植物阿尔泰银莲花Anemone altaica Fisch.的根茎,不得与石菖蒲相混淆。

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