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Tianma (Tall Gastrodia Tuber )---天麻(川)(powder100g/bottle)

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Product Description

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Tianma is the dried rhizome of Gastrodia elata Bi.,pertaining to Orchidaceae. It is collected from the Winter Begins Season to next year's clear and Bright Season. In winter when the rhizome is dry, the one colleted is known as "Dongma", of high quality, while in spring when the rhizome begins to sprout, the one is knows as "chunma", of low quality. After dug out, it is washed, thoroughly steamed, and then dried in low temperature and open space. After that is thoroughly mistened or steamed to become soft, and then cut into slices.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Sweet and neutral; relate to liver meridian.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Extinguish wind, stop convulsions; pacify liver and subdue yang.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Stirring of liver wind, fright epilespy and convulsion      Tianma is neutral and mild. In combination with other medicinal , it can treat stirring of live wind, manifesting as fright epilepsy and comvulsions, in combination with Lingyangjiao and Gouteng; for example in Gouteng Decoction. It treats chronic infantile convulsions due to spleen insufficiency, in combinatio with Renshen and Baizhu, in Xingpi Pills. In case of tetanus, manifesting as spasms, convulsions and opisthotonos, it is combined with Tiannanxiang, Baifuzi and Fangfeng, such as in Yuzhen Powder.

2. Dizziness and headache        It treats dizziness and headache due to hyperactivity of liver yang, in combination with Gouteng and Shijueming; for example in Tianma Gouteng Decoction. Also it treats dizziness and headache due to up-stirring of wind-phlegm, in combination with Banxia and Baizhu, such as in Banxia Baizhu Tianma Decoction. In case of migraine and headache, it is used in combination with Chuanxiong of equa dosage.

It also can dispel wind and unblock collateral to treat arthritic pain, and unsmooth flexing and stretching of joints, in combination with Qinjiao, Qianghuo and Sangzhi.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-9g. It is ground into powder to be taken infused with dosage of 1-1.5g.

[ Medicinal Comparison ]: Similarities: Both Tianma and Gouteng can pacify live, extinguish wind and subdue yang, to treat fright epilepsy and convulsions due to stirring of liver wind, and hyperactivity of liver yang, manifesting as headache and dizziness.

 Differneces:Gouteng is good at clearing heat and extinguishing wind, so it is effective for mild acute infantile convusions with high fever. Tianma is sweet and neutral and tends to moisten, but clearing heat is not as strong as Gouteng. It treats stirring of liver wind, manifesting as fright epilepsy and convulsions, regardless of cold, heat, deficiency and excess. Gouteng can clear heat and let pathogen out, to treat external contraction by wind heat, manifesting as headache, reddish eyes and macula failing to erupt. Tianma can dispel wind and unblock collateral , to treat numbness of four limbs, paralysis and arthralgic pain.

天麻为兰科植物天麻Gastrodia elata Bl.的干燥块茎。主产于四川、云南、贵州等地。立冬后至次年清明前采挖,冬季茎枯时采挖者名“冬麻”,质量优良;春季发芽时采挖者名“春麻”,质量较差。采挖后,立即洗净,蒸透,敞开低温干燥。用时润透或蒸软,切片。

       【药性】甘,平。归肝经。        【功效】息风止痉,平抑肝阳,祛风通络。       
 
【应用】        1.肝风内动,惊痫抽搐。本品主入肝经,功能息风止痉,且味甘质润,药性平和。故可用治各种病因之肝风内动,惊痫抽搐,不论寒热虚实,皆可配伍应用。如治小儿急惊风,常与羚羊角、钩藤、全蝎等息风止痉药同用,如钩藤饮(《医宗金鉴》);用治小儿脾虚慢惊,则与人参、白术、白僵蚕等药配伍,如醒脾丸(《普济本事方》);用治小儿诸惊,可与全蝎、制南星、白僵蚕同用,如天麻丸(《魏氏家藏方》),若用治破伤风痉挛抽搐、角弓反张,又与天南星、白附子、防风等药配伍,如玉真散(《外科正宗》)。       
 
2.眩晕,头痛。本品既息肝风,又平肝阳,为治眩晕、头痛之要药。不论虚证、实证,随不同配伍皆可应用。用治肝阳上亢之眩晕、头痛,常与钩藤、石决明、牛膝等同用,如天麻钩藤饮(《杂病证治新义》);用治风痰上扰之眩晕、头痛,痰多胸闷者,常与半夏、陈皮、茯苓、白术等同用,如半夏白术天麻汤(《医学心悟》);若头风攻注,偏正头痛,头晕欲倒者,可配等量川芎为丸,如天麻丸(《普济方》)。        3.肢体麻木,手足不遂,风湿痹痛。本品又能祛外风,通经络,止痛。用治中风手足不遂,筋骨疼痛等,可与没药、制乌头、麝香等药配伍,如天麻丸(《圣济总录》);用治妇人风痹,手足不遂,可与牛膝、杜仲、附子浸酒服,如天麻酒(《十便良方》);若治风湿痹痛,关节屈伸不利者,多与秦艽、羌活、桑枝等祛风湿药同用,如秦艽天麻汤。(《医学心悟》)。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,3~9g。研末冲服,每次1~1.5g。       
 
【鉴别用药】钩藤、羚羊角、天麻均有平肝息风、平肝潜阳之功,均可治肝风内动、肝阳上亢之证。然钩藤性凉,轻清透达,长于清热息风,用治小儿高热惊风轻证为宜;羚羊角性寒,清热力强,除用治热极生风证外,又能清心解毒,多用于高热神昏,热毒发斑等症;天麻甘平质润,清热之力不及钩藤、羚羊角,但肝风内动、惊痫抽搐之寒热虚实皆可配伍应用,且能祛风止痛。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《开宝本草》:“主诸风湿痹,四肢拘挛,小儿风痫、惊气,利腰膝,强筋力。”       
 
2.《用药法象》:“疗大人风热头痛;小儿风痫惊悸;诸风麻痹不仁;风热语言不遂。”       
 
3.《本草汇言》:“主头风,头痛,头晕虚旋,癫痫强痉,四肢挛急,语言不顺,一切中风,风痰。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含天麻苷,天麻苷元,β-甾谷醇和胡萝卜苷,柠蒙酸及其单甲酯,棕榈酸、琥珀酸和蔗糖等;尚含天麻多糖,维生素A,多种氨基酸,微量生物碱,多种微量元素,如铬、锰、铁、钴、镍、铜、锌等。      
 
  2.药理作用:天麻水、醇提取物及不同制剂,均能使小鼠自发性活动明显减少,且能延长巴比妥钠、环己烯巴比妥钠引起的小鼠睡眠时间,可抑制或缩短实验性癫痫的发作时间,天麻还有降低外周血管,脑血管,和冠状血管阻力,并有降压,减慢心率及镇痛抗炎作用,天麻多糖有免疫活性。       
 
3.临床研究:据报道,用天麻注射液肌注治疗以头痛、头晕、睡眠障碍为主要症状的脑外伤综合征66例,总有效率为97%(新药与临床,1985,2:8);用天麻注射液治疗轻型破伤风,用药后15~120分钟显效,病人安静,抽搐次数减少,显示出镇静作用(陕西新医药,1981,1:45);用天麻、川芎、法半夏治疗眩晕症90例,总有效率为94.4%(实用医学杂志,1994,1:50)。
 
另有用天麻等治疗神经衰弱、神经痛、面肌痉挛、高脂血症、老年血管性痴呆等。       
 
 4.不良反应:天麻及天麻制剂偶有过敏性反应及中毒的发生。如:口服天麻粉引起荨麻疹药疹;口服天麻丸引起过敏性紫癜;肌注天麻注射液致过敏性休克;大剂量炖服天麻致急性肾功能衰竭及昏迷等。天麻中毒解救的方法为:早期催吐,洗胃;出现过敏性反应及肾功能衰竭时,可对症处理。      
 
  附药 密环菌        密环菌Armillaria mellea Fr.是一种发光真菌,天麻种子和块茎皆依赖于密环菌供给营养生长。研究证明,密环菌的固体培养物具有与天麻相似的药理作用和临床疗效,现多以密环菌制剂代替天麻药用,主要适用于眩晕、头痛、失眠、半身不遂、肢体麻木等症。       

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