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Tiannanxing (Jack-in-the-pulpit Tuber)---天南星(powder100g/bottle)

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It is the dried tuber of Arisaema erubescens (wall.)Schott, Arisaema amurense Maxim. or Arisaema  heterophyllum BI.,family Araceae. The tubers are dug and collected in atutumn and winter when the stem and leaves wither. They are washed clean and dried in the sunshine to get Shengtiannanxing ( raw jack-in-the-pulpit tuber)after the fibrous roots and the skin are removed. It is usually processed with fresh ginger and alum for using.

[ Medicial Properties ]: Bitter, pungent, warm and toxic; relate to lung, liver and spleen meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Dry dampness and resolve phlegm; expel wind and relieve convulsions; relieve swelling and pain.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Damp-phlegm syndrome, cold-phlegm syndrome      For stubborn phlegm obstructing lung manifested as cough and chest distension and oppression, it is usually used together with Banxia, Fuling, Zhishi in Decoction. It treats lung-heat causing cough with thick and yellowish sputum in combination with Huangqin and Gualou.

2. Wind-phlegm syndrome       For dizziness, apoplexy with phlegm accumulation, wry mouth and eyes, epilepsy and tetanus, it is used with Banxia and Tianma in Yuhu Pills. Combined with Banxia, Baifuzi and Chuanwu, it treats numbness of extremities, hemiplegia, wry mouth and eyes due to stagnation of wind-phlegm in meridians. For tetanus, it is combined with Fangfeng, Baizhi and Tianma in Yuzhen Powder.

3. Large carbuncle, subcutaneous nodule, bite by poisonous snake    It is ground to powder and mixed with vinegar to apply on the affected parts of large carbuncle and subcutneous nodule. For bite by poisonous snake, it is mixed with Xionghuang to apply externally.

With its anti-tumor function discovered in recent years, it mainly treats cancer of uterine cervix.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-9g. It is usually used after processing. The appropriate amount of raw medicinal is ground into powder to apply on the affected parts.

[Precaution]:It is Mecontraindicated for pregnant women.

[Medicinal Comparison]: Similarities: Banxia and Tiannanxing are pungent, warm, toxic, and effective for drying dampness and resolving phlegm, so they treat damp-phlegm and cold-phlegm syndromes. when used externally, they are effective for subcutaneous nodule, large carbuncle and bite by poisonous snake with their functions of dispersing swelling and relieving pain.

Differences: Banxia mainly relates to spleen and lung meridians, and it is especially effictive for resolving damp-phlegm in viscera and dissipating stuffiness and nodulation. It also treats accumulation of phlegm-heat in chest and subcutaneous nodule, and also suppresses adverse rise of qi and stops vomiting. Tiannanxing mainly relates to liver meridian, it usually treats wind-phlegm syndrome with its effects of resolving wind-phlegm and controlling convulsions, and it is more effective for dispersing swelling and relieving pain.

[ Side Effects ]: Since Shengnaxing (raw jack-in-the-pulpit tuber)is toxic, it causes ithching and swellig of skin and mucosa.

[ Annotation] : Dan nan xing       It is processed from the powder of Zhitiannanxing( processed Jack-in-the-pulpit tuber) with goat or pig bile, or fermented from the powder of Shengtiannanxing with goat or pig bile. It is bitter, slightly pungent,cool and relates to lung, liver and spleen merdians. it can clear and resolve heat-phlegm, extinguish wind and control convulsions. It mainly treats phlegm-heat causing cough with thick and yellowish sputum, apoplexy with phlegm accumulation, mania and epilepsy. The dosage is 3-6g.

天南星为天南星科植物天南星Arisaema erubcscens (Wall.) Schott、异叶天南星A. heterophyllum Bl.或东北天南星A.amurense Maxim.的块茎。天南星主产于河南、河北、四川等地;异叶天南星主产于江苏、浙江等地;东北天南星主产于辽宁、吉林等地。秋、冬二季采挖,除去须根及外皮,晒干,即生南星;用姜汁、明矾制过用,为制南星。

       【药性】苦、辛,温。有毒。归肺、肝、脾经。        【功效】燥湿化痰,祛风解痉;外用散结消肿。       
 
【应用】        1.湿痰,寒痰证。本品性温而燥,有较强的燥湿化痰之功。治湿痰阻肺,咳喘痰多,胸膈胀闷,常与半夏相须为用,并配枳实、橘红,如导痰汤(《传信适用方》);若配黄芩等,可用于热痰咳嗽,如小黄丸(张洁古《素问病机气宜保命集》)。       
 
 2.风痰眩晕、中风、癫痫、破伤风。本品归肝经,走经络,善祛风痰而止痉厥。治风痰眩晕,配半夏、天麻等;治风痰留滞经络,半身不遂,手足顽麻,口眼喎斜等,则配半夏,川乌、白附子等,如青州白丸子(《和剂局方》);治破伤风角弓反张,痰涎壅盛,则配白附子、天麻、防风等,如玉真散(《外科正宗》)。治癫痫,可与半夏、全蝎、僵蚕等同用,如五痫丸(《杨氏家藏方》)。       
3.痈疽肿痛,蛇虫咬伤。本品外用能消肿散结止痛。治痈疽肿痛、痰核,可研末醋调敷;治毒蛇咬伤,可配雄黄外敷。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,3~l0g,多制用。外用适量。        【使用注意】阴虚燥痰及孕妇忌用。       
 
【鉴别用药】半夏、天南星药性辛温有毒,均为燥湿化痰要药,善治湿痰、寒痰,炮制后又能治热痰、风痰。然半夏主入脾、肺,重在治脏腑湿痰,且能止呕。天南星则走经络,偏于祛风痰而能解痉止厥,善治风痰证。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《开宝本草》:“主中风,麻痹,除痰,下气,破坚积,消痈肿,利胸膈,散血堕胎。”        2.《本草纲目》;“治惊痫,口眼喎斜,喉痹,口舌疮糜,结核,解颅。”        3.《本经逢原》:“南星、半夏皆治痰药也。然南星专走经络,故中风、麻痹以之为导;半夏专走肠胃,故呕吐、泄泻以之为向导。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含三萜皂苷、安息香酸、氨基酸、D-甘露醇等。      
 
  2.药理作用:煎剂具有祛痰及抗惊厥、镇静、镇痛作用;水提取液对肉瘤S180、HCA(肝癌)实体型、子宫瘤U14有明显抑制作用;生物碱氯仿部位能对抗乌头碱所致的实验性心律失常,并能延长心肌细胞动作电位的有效不应期。      
 
  3.临床研究:制南星为主配决明子、蚕蛹等制成片剂口服,治胆固醇升高者158例,甘油三酯升高者132例,β脂蛋白升高者116例。结果有效率分别为90.5%、90.5%、83.62%(中西医结合杂志,1987,9:522);天南星、生蒲黄共为细末,醋调成饼,包涌泉穴,12小时易之,治疗小儿多涎症132例,痊愈118例,好转11例,无效3例(四川中医,1986,10:13);以天南星、三七、白附子等制成“强力消炎胶囊”口服,治急性牙龈炎、牙周脓肿等多种口腔病,总有效率为83.9%(中成药研究,1986,6:21)。       
 
 4.不良反应:天南星对皮肤、粘膜均有强刺激性,人口嚼生天南星,可使舌、咽、口腔麻木和肿痛,出现粘膜糜烂,音哑、张口困难,甚至呼吸缓慢、窒息等。皮肤接触可致过敏瘙痒,尚有报道长期使用天南星可引起智力发育障碍。误服本品中毒者,可服稀醋、鞣酸或浓茶、蛋清等洗胃,或服鲜姜汁或鲜姜汤内服解毒。口腔糜烂者,可用双氧水和复方硼酸溶液漱口,并用龙胆紫涂口腔,必要时给以吸氧,或气管切开。皮肤中毒时,可用水或稀醋、鞣酸洗涤。       
 
附药 胆南星        为天南星用牛胆汁拌制而成的加工品。性味苦、微辛,凉。归肝、胆经。功能清热化痰,息风定惊。适用于中风、癫痫、惊风、头风眩晕、痰火喘咳等证。煎服,1.5~6g。

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