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Wulingzi ( Trogopterus Dung)---五灵脂(powder100g/bottle)

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It is the excrement of Trogopterus xanthipes Milne-Edwards, family Petaurista. It can be collected all year round. The impurities are removed and it is dried in the sunshine. It also can be used in its stir-baked with vinegar form.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter, salty, sweet and warm; relate to liver meridian.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Activate blood and relieve pain; resolve blood-stasis to stop bleeding.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Blood stasis causing pain      When used to treat dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, postpartum abdominal and chest pain, it is usually combined with Puhuang, for example, in the Shixiao Powder. In order to treat epigastirc and abdominal pain, it is combined with Huyanshuo and Xiangfu.

2. Bleeding with interior stasis        For metrorrhagia and metrostaxis with heavy menstruation with a purple color, with many gores and stabing pain in lower abdomen, it can be used in its stir-baked form and combined together with Sanqi, Shengdihuang and Mudanpi.

In addition, it can also remove snake and insect toxin. For bites by snakes, scorpions and centipedes, it can be used orally or externally.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-10g. Wrapped when decocted. Or it is processed into pill or powder. The appropriate amount is used for external application.

[ Precautions ]: It should be used with caution for pregnant women. It is traditionally considered to be contraindicated with ginseng.

五灵脂为鼯鼠科动物复齿鼯鼠Trogopterus xanthipes Milne-Edwards的粪便。主产于河北、山西、甘肃。全年均可采收,除去杂质,晒干。许多粪粒凝结成块状的称“灵脂块”,又称“糖灵脂”,质佳;粪粒松散呈米粒状的,称“灵脂米”,质量较次。生用或醋炙、酒炙用。

       【药性】苦、咸、甘,温。归肝经。        【功效】活血止痛,化瘀止血。       
 
【应用】        1.瘀血阻滞之痛证。本品苦泄温通,专入肝经血分,善于活血化瘀止痛,为治疗瘀滞疼痛之要药,常与蒲黄相须为用,即失笑散(《和剂局方》)。如治胸痹心痛,常与川芎、丹参、乳香、没药同用;若治脘腹胁痛,配伍延胡索、香附、没药等;若治痛经,经闭,产后瘀滞腹痛,则与当归、益母草等同用;治骨折肿痛,可配白及、乳香、没药,研末外敷。       
 
2.瘀滞出血证。本品炒用,既能活血散瘀,又能止血。故可用于瘀血内阻、血不归经之出血,如妇女崩漏经多,色紫多块,少腹刺痛,既可单味炒研末,温酒送服,如《永类钤方》五灵脂散;又可配伍其他药同用,如《玉机微义》五灵脂丸,以本品与神曲同用;临床常配伍三七、蒲黄、生地等药用。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,3~10g,宜包煎。       
 
【使用注意】血虚无瘀及孕妇慎用。“十九畏”认为人参畏五灵脂,一般不宜同用。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《开宝本草》:“心腹冷痛,小儿五疳,辟疫,治肠风,通利气脉,女子月闭。”       
 
 2.《本草纲目》:“止妇人经水过多,赤带不绝,胎前产后血气诸痛,男女一切心腹、胁肋、少腹诸痛,疝痛,血痢,肠风腹痛,身体血痹刺痛。”       
 
 3.《本草经疏》:“五灵脂,其功常与破血行血,故凡瘀血停滞作痛,产后血晕,恶血冲心,少腹儿枕痛,留血经闭,瘀血心胃间作痛,血滞经脉,气不得行,攻刺疼痛等证,在所必用。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:主要含有尿素、尿酸、维生素A类物质及多量树脂。       
 
2.药理作用:可抑制血小板聚集,降低全血粘度、血浆粘度;降低心肌细胞耗氧量;提高耐缺氧、耐寒和耐高温能力;能缓解平滑肌痉挛;增强正常机体免疫功能,改善实验性微循环;对多种皮肤真菌有不同程度的抑制作用,并能抑制结核杆菌。      
 
  3.临床研究:以五灵止痛散(含冰片、五灵脂、炒蒲黄等药),每次0.3—0.6g,口服或舌下含服,痛时即服,治疗急性痛证554例。结果显效194例,有效298例,无效62例。止痛服药后最快10分钟,完全止痛一般30—60分钟。止痛时间服1次药后可维持30分钟—12小时,多数能维持2—3小时(新编中药药理与临床应用,第一版,上海科学技术出版社,1993.384)。       
 
【其他】五灵脂与人参的配伍关系研究。对毒性的影响:以人参与五灵脂合煎后给小鼠灌胃或腹腔注射,均未见小鼠死亡。以人参五灵脂煎液在相当于成人剂量300倍的情况下灌胃不具毒性,但腹腔注射则有毒性增加趋势。对药效的影响:人参五灵脂煎液以80g/kg灌胃对小鼠的游泳时间、耐缺氧能力分别小于红参和五灵脂单用的作用。两者合用既不增加 CC14造成的急性肝损伤小鼠肝脏毒性,也不降低人参的护肝作用。两者配伍能显著增强正常小鼠免疫器官发育、单核细胞的吞噬功能,溶血素抗体形成等。对环磷酰胺造成的免疫功能低下,小鼠胸腺、脾脏重量以及溶血素抗体形成也有明显促进作用。同时又可提高腹腔巨噬细胞吞噬率和吞噬指数。能显著改善血瘀模型动物的全血粘度、红细胞压积及红细胞电泳时间。临床应用:人参五灵脂配伍治疗胃溃疡、慢性胃炎、十二指肠球部糜烂性炎症、慢性结肠炎均获较好疗效,且无1例出现任何毒副反应。两者配伍治疗冠心病也取得满意效果。此外,临床上两者相配用于治疗肿瘤,五灵脂与党参配伍治疗慢性支气管炎、妇科出血、月经不调、跌损骨折等。

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