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Wuzhuyu ( Medicinal Evodia Fruit)---吴茱萸(powder100g/bottle)

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It is the dried and nearly natured fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa ( Juss.) Benth.,Evodia rutaecarpa( Juss.)Benth.var.officinalis ( Dode) Huang, or Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.)Benth.var.bodinier( Dode) Huang, family Rutaceae. When the fruits are not rupture from August to November, the branch can be cut off, dried in the sunshine or in low temperature. The branch, leaf, peduncle and other impurity are all removed. The processed form with Gancao can be utilized as a medicine.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Pungent, bitter in flavor, hot in nature, slightly toxic. Relate to the liver, spleen, stomach and kidney meridian.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Expel cold and relieve pain. Check adverse rise of qi to stop vomiting. Strengthen yang and arrest diarrhea.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. All pai syndromes of cold accumulation in the liver meridian      It is the essential medicine in treating for Jueyin headache, in combination with Renshen, Shengjiang, Dazao, such as in the formula Wuzhuyu Decoction; in treating for colic of cold pattern with abdominal pain, it is usually  used in combination with Xiaohuixiang, Muxiag, Chuanlian, such as in the formula Dao Qi Decoction; in treating for dysmenorrhea due to cold accuulation, it is combined with Guizhi, Danggui, Chuanxiong, such as in the formula Wenjing Decoction; in treating for coldness and pain in epigastric adomen, it is combined with Ganjiang, Muxiang; in treating for beriberi with  swelling and pain due to cold-dampness, it is combined with Mugua, Binlang, such as in the formula Jiming Powder.

2. Vomiting and acid regurgitation     In treating for bomiting and acid regurgitation due to invasion of lung by liver fire, leading to disharmony between liver and stomach, it is often used with  Huanglian, such as in the formula Zuojin Pill; in treating for vomiting due to cold stomach, it is combined with Banxia, Shengjiang.

3. Diarrhea due to deficiency and cold      In treating for diarrhea at dawn due to  yang deficiency of spleen and kidney , it is usually used in combination with Buguzhi, Roudoukou, Wuweizi, such as in the formula Sishen Pill.

In addition, this medicinal also has the function of conducting fire to go downward, so it can be ground into powder and prepared with vinegar to treat aphthae, tongue sore by external applications on sole.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 1.5-4.5g is used for oral use. Appropriate amount is used for external use.

[ Precautions ]: Its property is pungent, hot, dry and violent, it can easily consume qi and activate fire, therefore, it is not suitable to be taken in large dosage and for a long time, and it is contraindicated for those diagnosed as yin deficiency with internal heat.

[ Side Effects ]: This medicinal can lead the body temperature increasing it can excite the center when taking overdosage and cause visual disorder and illusion.

吴茱萸为芸香科植物吴茱萸Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.、石虎E. rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth.Var.officinalis (Dode) Huang 或疏毛吴茱萸E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.Var.bodinieri (Dode) Huang的干燥近成熟果实。主产于贵州、广西、湖南、云南、陕西、浙江、四川等地。8~11月果实尚未开裂时,剪下果枝,晒干或低温干燥,除去枝、叶、果梗等杂质。用甘草汤制过应用。

【药性】辛、苦,热;有小毒。归肝、脾、胃、肾经。        【功效】散寒止痛,降逆止呕,助阳止泻。     

【应用】        1.寒凝疼痛。本品辛散苦泄,性热祛寒,主入肝经,既散肝经之寒邪,又疏肝气之郁滞,为治肝寒气滞诸痛之主药。每与生姜、人参等同用,治厥阴头痛,干呕吐涎沫,苔白脉迟等,如吴茱萸汤(《伤寒论》);常与小茴香、川楝子、木香等配伍,治寒疝腹痛,如导气汤(《医方简义》);与桂枝、当归、川芎等同用,可治冲任虚寒,瘀血阻滞之痛经,如温经汤(《金匮要略》);与木瓜、苏叶、槟榔等配伍,治寒湿脚气肿痛,或上冲入腹,如鸡鸣散(《类编朱氏集验医方》)。       

 2.胃寒呕吐。本品辛散苦泄,性热祛寒,善能散寒止痛,还能疏肝解郁,降逆止呕,兼能制酸止痛。常与干姜、甘草同用,治霍乱心腹痛,呕吐不止,如吴茱萸汤(《圣济总录》);与半夏、生姜等同用,可治外寒内侵、胃失和降之呕吐;配伍黄连,可治肝郁化火,肝胃不和的胁痛口苦,呕吐吞酸,如左金丸(《丹溪心法》)。       

3.虚寒泄泻。本品性味辛热,能温脾益肾,助阳止泻,为治脾肾阳虚,五更泄泻之常用药,多与补骨脂、肉豆蔻、五味子等同用,如四神丸(《校注妇人大全良方》)。       

【用法用量】煎服,1.5~4.5g。外用适量。        【使用注意】本品辛热燥烈,易耗气动火,故不宜多用、久服。阴虚有热者忌用。       

 【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主温中下气,止痛,咳逆寒热,除湿,血痹,逐风邪,开腠理。”        2.《本草纲目》:“开郁化滞,治吞酸,厥阴痰涎头痛,阴毒腹痛,疝气血痢,喉舌口疮。”        3.《本草经疏》:“吴茱萸,辛温暖脾胃而散寒邪,则中自温、气自下,而诸证悉除。”       

【现代研究】        1.化学成分:含挥发油,油中主要为吴茱萸烯、罗勒烯、月桂烯、吴茱萸内酯、吴茱萸内酯醇等。还含吴茱萸酸,吴茱萸碱,吴茱萸啶酮,吴茱萸精,吴茱萸苦素等。       

2.药理作用:本品甲醇提取物,水煎剂有抗动物实验性胃溃疡的作用;水煎剂对药物性导致动物胃肠痉挛有对抗作用,有明显的镇痛作用;本品注射液静注对麻醉大鼠和狗有明显升高血压的作用;其煎剂、蒸馏液和冲剂过滤后,分别给正常兔、犬和实验性肾型高血压犬进行静注,均有明显的降压作用;煎剂给犬灌胃,也呈明显降压作用,甘草煎剂可使吴茱萸的降压作用消失;能抑制血小板聚集,抑制血小板血栓及纤维蛋白血栓形成;其煎剂,吴茱萸次碱和脱氢吴茱萸碱对家兔离体及在体子宫有兴奋作用;在猫心肌缺血后,吴茱萸及吴茱萸汤能改善部分心电图,部分减少血中磷酸肌酸酶及乳酸脱氢酶的释放,明显增加血中一氧化氮的浓度,缩小心肌梗塞面积,具有一定的保护心肌缺血的作用。      

  3.临床研究:吴茱萸研细末,用水拌如饼,外敷神阙穴,治疗腹泻,尤以脾肾阳虚五更泄效果佳,小儿每次3g,成人每次6g,观察病例19例,总有效率94.3%(陕西中医,1995,6:271);吴茱萸10~15g,研成粉未,未熟热米饭200g,混合成饼,放于脐部,纱布绷带固定,治疗小儿肠炎400例,痊愈312例,显效72例,无效16例(中国医院药学杂志,2001,2:99);吴茱萸10g,研细过100目筛,加凡士林90g,研匀。治疗牛皮癣21例,总有效率为95.2%(中医药信息,2000,2:47)。

另有用吴茱萸治疗呃逆、小儿多涎症、小儿支气管肺炎、高血压病、腮腺炎、蛲虫病、疥疮、湿疹、复发性口腔溃疡等。       


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