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Xixiancao ( Siegesbeckia Herb )---豨莶草

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The source is from the dry parts upon the ground of Siegesbeckia orientalis L., Siegesbeckia. pubescens Makino and Siegesbeckia. glabrescens Makino, family Asteraceae. It is collected before and in bloom in the summer and autumn with impurity substance removed. And then it is dried in the sun and cut into pieces. The raw one or steamed with millet wine is for use.

[ Medicinal Properties]: Pungent, bitter, cold; relate to liver and kidney meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Expel wind and dampness; dredge the meridians and collaterals; clear heat and relieve toxicity.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 9-12 g. Just right amount is for external use. Prepared one is suitable for pain in bi-syndrome of wind-dampness and hemiplegia . The crude one is suitable for nettle rash, eczema, sore and carbuncle.
 
[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Pain in bi-syndrome of wind-dampness and hemiplegia due to stroke    It is cold ,which is suitable for bi-syndrome of wind-dampness-heat. The one prepared with wine has actions of tonifying the liver and kidney which is used to treat pain, flaccidity, weakness of waist and knee and numbness of limbs in bi-syndrome; or hemiplegia due to stroke. It can be added to pill and powder alone, or used together with chouwutong, such as in Xitong Pill, or in combination with Qishe, Huangqi, Danggui and Weilingxian, etc.
 
2. Nettle rash eczema,sore and caruncle     The crude one can clear heat and relieve toxincity. For nettle rash and eczema, it can be used alone for oral use or external wash, or together with such medicinals with actions of excreting dampness and relieving itching as Baijili, Difuzi and Baixianpi, etc. For sore and carbuncle, it is in combination with Pugongying and Yejuhua, etc. For carbuncle and deep-rooted boil, the mixed juice from Xixiancao, Xiaoji and Dasuan can be drunk to induce sweat.
 
In addition, it can reduce blood pressure which can be used to treat hypertension.

豨莶草为菊科植物豨莶Siegesbeckia orientalis L.、腺梗豨莶S.pubescens Makino或毛梗豨莶S.glabrescens Makino的干燥地上部分。我国大部分地区有产,以湖南、湖北、江苏等地产量较大。夏、秋二季花开前及花期均可采割,除去杂质,晒干。切段,生用或黄酒蒸制用。
      
【药性】辛、苦,寒。归肝、肾经。        【功效】袪风湿,利关节,解毒。       
 
【应用】        1.风湿痹痛,中风半身不遂。本品辛散苦燥,能袪筋骨间风湿,通经络,利关节。生用性寒,宜于风湿热痹;酒制后寓补肝肾之功,常用于风湿痹痛,筋骨无力,腰膝酸软,四肢麻痹,或中风半身不遂。可单用为丸服,如豨莶散(《活人方汇编》)、豨莶丸(《万氏家抄方》);或与臭梧桐合用,如豨桐丸(《济世养生经验集》)。《方脉正宗》配蕲蛇、黄芪、当归、威灵仙等,治中风口眼喎斜,半身不遂者。       
 
 2.风疹,湿疮,疮痈。本品辛能散风,生用苦寒能清热解毒,化湿热。治风疹湿疮,可单用内服或外洗,亦可配白蒺藜、地肤子、白鲜皮等袪风利湿止痒之品。治疮痈肿毒红肿热痛者,可配蒲公英、野菊花等清热解毒药;《乾坤秘韫》治发背、疔疮,与五爪龙、小蓟、大蒜同用饮汁取汗。       
 
 此外,本品能降血压,可治高血压病。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,9~12g。外用,适量。治风湿痹痛、半身不遂宜制用,治风疹湿疮、疮痈宜生用。       
 
 【鉴别用药】豨莶草能袪风湿,通经络,利关节。生用性寒,善清热解毒,化湿热,除风痒,故宜于风湿热痹,关节红肿热痛以及湿热疮疡、风疹、湿毒瘙痒等证;酒蒸制后转为甘温,袪风除湿之中寓有补益肝肾之功,故可用于风湿四肢麻痹,筋骨疼痛,腰膝酸软及中风半身不遂等证,但单用作用缓慢,久服方效。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《本草图经》:“治肝肾风气,四肢麻痹,骨间疼,腰膝无力者,亦能行大肠气……兼主风湿疮,肌肉顽痹。”        2.《本草蒙筌》:“疗暴中风邪,口眼喎斜者立效;治久渗湿痹,腰脚酸痛者殊功。”       
 
3.《本草纲目》:“生捣汁服则令人吐,故云有小毒。九蒸九暴则补人去痹,故云无毒。生则性寒,熟则性温,云热者,非也。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含生物碱,酚性成分,豨莶苷,豨莶苷元,氨基酸,有机酸,糖类,苦味质等。还含有微量元素Zn、Cu、Fe、Mn等。       
 
2.药理作用:豨莶草有抗炎和较好的镇痛作用;有降压作用;对细胞免疫、体液免疫及非特异性免疫均有抑制作用;可增强T细胞的增殖功能,促进IL-2的活性,抑制IL-1的活性,可通过调整机体免疫功能,改善局部病理反应而达到抗风湿作用;有扩张血管作用;对血栓形成有明显抑制作用;对金黄色葡萄球菌有较强的抑制作用,对大肠杆菌、绿脓杆菌、宋内痢疾杆菌、伤寒杆菌、白色葡萄球菌、卡他球菌、肠炎杆菌、鼠疟原虫等也有一定抑制作用,对单纯疱疹病毒有中等强度的抑制作用。豨莶苷有兴奋子宫和明显的抗早孕作用。       
 
3.临床研究:豨莶草治疗高血压病、脑血管意外后遗症、银屑病疗效满意。另有报道:用豨莶草30g,煎服,治疗疟疾3500多例,有效率95%(全国中草药新医疗法展览会资料选编,1972:26);豨莶草30g,荔枝草20g,红花10g,川牛膝10g,水煎服,药渣加水煎后坐浴,治疗非淋菌性前列腺炎68例,有效率86.8%(中医杂志,2001,4:202);豨莶草、鸡蛋壳各10份,甘草2份,制成水丸,每次4.5g,每日2次,配合功能锻炼,治疗地方性氟病28例,有效率85.7%(新医药学杂志,1978,2:31)。又用治急性黄疸型肝炎、夜盲症亦有较好疗效。       

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