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Yizhiren (Sharpleaf Glangal Fruit)---益智仁

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This medicinal is the dried ripe fruit of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.(fam.Zingiberaceae). It is excavated between spring and autumn when the fruit turns reddish from green and dried by sunlight. Baked with sand and taken out of the seeds, it is used unprocessed or slightly stir-baked with salty water. when used, it is pound into pieces.

[ Medicinal Properties ]:  Pungent, warm; relate to kidney and spleen meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Warm kidney to secure essence and reduce urination; warm spleen to check diarrhea and salivation.

[ Clinical Applications ]: Spermatorrhea, enuresis and frequent urination    To treat nocturnal emission, it is used in combination with Wuyao and Shanyao. In combination with the same dose of Yizhi and Wuyao; in the Suoquan Pills, it is ground into powder and processed into pills in mixture with Shanyao paste, to treat frequent urination due to deficiency-cold in lower energizer.

2. Deficiency-cold of spleen and stomach, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea and salivation     To treat abdominal pain with cold sensation, vomiting and diarrhea, it is used in combination with Chuanwu and Ganjiang. For deficiency-cold of middle qi with anorexia and salivation, it is held in the mouth without swallowing by itself or used in combination with Renshen, Baizhu and Fuling.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-10g.

[ Medicinal Comparisons ]: Similarities : Both Buguzhi and Yizhi have similar action of warming and invigorating kidney yang, securing  essence and reducing enuresis, warming spleen to check diarrhea and are indicated for deficiency of kidney yang with spermatorrhea, enuresis and frequent urination, deficiency of spleen-kidney yang with diarrhea. They are often used in combination to create mutual reinforcement.

Differences: Buguzhi is stronger in invigorating yang, mainly acts on the kidney. It usually treats pain in knees and lumbus with cold sensation, impotence, which is due to declination of fire of life-gate. It also has the function of tonifying kidney yang and improving qi reception to relieve dyspnea and treats dyspnea due to the failure of kidney to receive qi. Yizhi mainly acts on the spleen and is more effective to warm the spleen and stomach to check salivation. It usually treats deficiency-cold of middle qi with anorexia, infantile salivation and abdominal pain with cold sensation.

益智仁为姜科植物益智Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.的成熟果实。主产于广东﹑广西、云南、福建等地。夏、秋季间果实由绿转红时采收,晒干。砂炒后去壳取仁,生用或盐水微炒用。用时捣碎。

       【药性】辛,温。归肾、脾经。        【功效】暖肾固精缩尿,温脾开胃摄唾。       
 
 【应用】        1.下元虚寒遗精、遗尿、小便频数。可以本品暖肾固精缩尿,补益之中兼有收涩之性。常与乌药、山药等同用,治疗梦遗,如三仙丸(《世医得效方》);以益智仁、乌药等分为末,山药糊丸,治下焦虚寒,小便频数,如缩泉丸(《校注妇人大全良方》)。      
 
  2.脾胃虚寒,腹痛吐泻及口涎自流。脾主运化,在液为涎,肾主闭藏,在液为唾,脾肾阳虚,统摄无权,多见涎唾。常以本品暖肾温脾开胃摄唾,常配川乌、干姜、青皮等同用,治脘腹冷痛,呕吐泄利,如益智散(《和剂局方》);若中气虚寒,食少,多涎唾,可单用本品含之,或与理中丸、六君子汤等同用。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,3~10g。       
【鉴别用药】补骨脂与益智仁味辛性温热,归脾肾经,均能补肾助阳,固精缩尿,温脾止泻,都可用治肾阳不足的遗精滑精,遗尿尿频,以及脾肾阳虚的泄泻不止等证。二者常相须为用。但补骨脂助阳的力量强,作用偏于肾,长于补肾壮阳,肾阳不足,命门火衰的腰膝冷痛,阳痿等症,补骨脂多用。也可用治肾不纳气的虚喘,能补肾阳而纳气平喘。益智仁则助阳之力较补骨脂为弱,作用偏于脾,长于温脾开胃摄唾,中气虚寒,食少多唾,小儿流涎不止,腹中冷痛者,益智仁多用。       
 
 【古籍摘要】        1.《本草拾遗》:“止呕吵,……含之摄涎秽。”       
 
 2.《本草经疏》:“益智子仁,以其敛摄,故治遗精虚漏,及小便余沥,此皆肾气不固之证也。肾主纳气,虚则不能纳矣。又主五液,涎乃脾之所统,脾肾气虚,二脏失职,是肾不能纳,脾不能摄,故主气逆上浮,涎秽泛滥而上溢也,敛摄脾肾之气,则逆气归元;涎秽下行。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:含二苯庚体类、类倍半萜类及挥发油类。       
 
2.药理作用:益智仁的甲醇提取物对豚鼠左心房收缩力有明显增强作用。益智仁的水提取物对移植于小鼠腹腔中的腹水型肉瘤细胞的增长有中等强度的抑制作用。       
 
 3.临床研究:益智仁、制川乌、炮姜、青皮,共为散剂,治疗寒盛吐泻,效佳;益智仁、乌药等份研末,山药糊丸,米粥送服,治疗遗尿尿频(吉林中医药,1993,2:18)。

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