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Yuanzhi (Thinleaf Milkwort Root)---远志(powder100g/bottle)

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 It is the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia Wild. or Polygala sibirica L.,family Polygalaceae. The roots are dug and collected in spring and autumn. After the fibrous roots and earth are removed , they are dried in the sunshine. The raw or stir-baked with liquid adjuvant are used.

[ Medicinal Propertes ]: Bitter, pungent and warm;p relate to heart, kidney and lung meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Calm mind; eliminate phlegm for resucitation; dissipate swelling and carbuncles.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Fright palpitation, insomnia and amnesia    For fright palpitation, it is usually combined with Zhusha and Longchi, such as Yuanzhi Pills; for insomnia and amnesia, with Renshen and Shichangpu in Buwang Powder.

2. Confusion of mind by phlegm causing epilepsy and mania      For epilepsy, coma and convulsion, it is combined with Banxia, Tianma and Quanxie; for mania, with Shichangpu, Yujin and Baifan.

3. Cough with profuse sputum    It is combined with Xingren, Jiegeng and Gancao to treat cough with profuse sputum, which is difficult to expectorate.

4. Large carbuncle causing swelling pain     For large carbuncle and swelling pain of breast, it is ground into pwder and taken with millet wine or mixed for external application.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-9g. It is used externally with appropriate amount.

[ Precautions ]: It is used with cautio for patients suffering ulcer and gastritis.

远志为远志科植物远志Polygala tenuifolia Willd.或卵叶远志Polygala sibirica L.的干燥根。主产于山西、陕西、吉林、河南、河北等地。春季出苗前或秋季地上部分枯萎后,挖取根部,除去须根及泥沙,晒干。生用或炙用。

       【药性】苦、辛,温。归心、肾、肺经。        【功效】安神益智,祛痰开窍,消散痈肿。       
 
【应用】        1.失眠多梦,心悸怔忡,健忘。本品苦辛性温,性善宣泄通达,既能开心气而宁心安神、又能通肾气而强志不忘,为交通心肾、安定神志、益智强识之佳品。主治心肾不交之心神不宁、失眠、惊悸等症,常与茯神、龙齿、朱砂等镇静安神药同用,如远志丸(《张氏医通》);治健忘证,常与人参、茯苓、菖蒲同用,如开心散(《千金方》),若方中再加茯神,即不忘散(《证治准绳》)。       
 
2.癫痫惊狂。本品味辛通利,能利心窍,逐痰涎,故可用治痰阻心窍所致之癫痫抽搐,惊风发狂等症。用于癫痫昏仆、痉挛抽搐者,可与半夏、天麻、全蝎等化痰、息风药配伍;治疗惊风狂证发作,常与菖蒲、郁金、白矾等祛痰、开窍药同用。       
 
 3.咳嗽痰多。本品苦温性燥,入肺经,能祛痰止咳,故可用治痰多粘稠、咳吐不爽或外感风寒、咳嗽痰多者,常与杏仁、贝母、瓜蒌、桔梗等同用。       
 
4.痈疽疮毒,乳房肿痛,喉痹。本品辛行苦泄,功擅疏通气血之壅滞而消散痈肿,用于痈疽疮毒,乳房肿痛,内服、外用均有疗效,内服可单用为末,黄酒送服。外用可隔水蒸软,加少量黄酒捣烂敷患处。远志味辛入肺,开宣肺气,以利咽喉,如《仁斋直指方》治喉痹作痛用“远志肉为末,吹之,涎出为度。”       
 
【用法用量】煎服,3~9g。外用适量。化痰止咳宜炙用。        【使用注意】凡实热或痰火内盛者,以及有胃溃疡或胃炎者慎用。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主咳逆伤中,补不足,除邪气,利九窍,益智慧,耳目聪明,不忘,强志,倍力。”      
 
  2.《别录》:“定心气,止惊悸,益精,去心下膈气,皮肤中热,面目黄。”       
 
3.《药品化义》:“远志,味辛重大雄,入心开窍,宣散之药。凡痰涎伏心,壅塞心窍,致心气实热,为昏聩神呆、语言蹇涩,为睡卧不宁,为恍惚惊怖,为健忘,为梦魇,为小儿客忤,暂以豁痰利窍,使心气开通,则神昏自宁也。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含皂苷,水解后可分得远志皂苷元A和远志皂苷元B。还含远志酮、生物碱、糖及糖苷、远志醇、细叶远志定碱、脂肪油、树脂等。       
 
 2.药理作用:全远志有镇静、催眠及抗惊厥作用。远志皂苷有祛痰、镇咳、降压作用;煎剂对大鼠和小鼠离体之未孕及已孕子宫均有兴奋作用;乙醇浸液在体外对革兰氏阳性菌及痢疾杆菌、伤寒杆菌、人型结核杆菌均有明显抑制作用;其煎剂及水溶性提取物分别具有抗衰老、抗突变抗癌等作用;远志皂苷有溶血作用。       
 
3.临床研究:据报道,用远志12g加60度白酒15ml浸泡片刻,再加清水一碗煮沸20分钟后顿服,每日1剂,治疗急性乳腺炎62例,取得较满意疗效(新医药通讯,1973,6:5)用远志、琥珀、石菖蒲、细辛、龙齿、桂枝六味药组成的远志琥珀散,治疗小儿遗尿,有较好的疗效(四川中医,1984,1:47)。另有用远志等治疗心肌炎、阑尾炎、小儿多动症、阴道滴虫等。       
 
4.不良反应:据报道,远志内服致过敏反应1例,表现为舌及下颌部麻木,面部潮红,并出现散在性丘疹,停药后消失。另有1例,因工作中接触远志饮片导致过敏性哮喘。       

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