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ZhiKE (Immature Orange PEEL )---枳壳

Price:
$9.36
Weight:
1.00 LBS
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Calculated at checkout


Product Description

zhishi-yuantai-l.jpg

 It is the immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. and its cultivated varieties or Citrus sinensis Osbeck, family Rutaceae. The fallen fruits are collected betwwen May to June. After the impurities are removed, they are sliced and dried in the sunshine or in low temperature. The raw or stir-baked with bran can be used.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter, pungent, sour and warm; relate to spleen and stomach meridians.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Break qi, remove food retention; resolve phlegm and dissipate mass.

[ Clinical Applications ]: 1. Foodretention syndromes     For abdominal pain and constipation due tofood retention, it is usually combined with Houpo and Dahuang, such as Xiaochengqi Decoction; for indigestion and eructation with fetid smell, with Shanzha, Maiya and Shenqu; for accumulation of damp-heat with dysentery and tenesmus with Dahuang, Huangqin and Huanglian , such as zhishi Daozhi Pills.

2. Chest impediment, epigastric stuffiness     For inner obstruction by phlegm-turbidity and yang-qi deficiency in chest causing chest impediment, it is usually combined with Gualou, Xiebai and Guizhi, such as Zhishi Xiebai Guizhi Decoction; for spleen deficiency with phlegm retention and coexistence of cold and heat resulting in epigastric fullness and distension and poor appetite, usually with Houpo, Banxia and Baizhu, such as Zhishi Xiaopi Pills; for relapse of disease due to overstrain, hot feeling of the body,epigastric stuffiness, with Zhizi and Douchi, such as Zhishi Zhizi Chi Decoction.

In addition, it also treats gastrectasis, gastroptosis, prolapse of rectum and uterus. Reports in recent years show its action of raising blood pressure.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 3-9g, no more than 30g. The raw effectively break qi and resolve phlegm. The stir-baked remove food retention and eliminate mass.

[ Precautions ]: It is used with caution for spleen and stomach deficiency and for pregnant women.

[Annotation ]: Zhiqiao       Its the dried immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L.and its cultivated varieties, with pulp removed. The raw or stir-baked with bran can be used for medication. It is bitter, pungent, sour, warm and relates to spleen and stomach meridians. With actions of regulating qi to comfort the middle energizer and promoting digestion to relieve distension, it usually treats qi stagnation in chest and hypochondrium, swelling pain, indigestio due to food retention, phlegm retention, gastroptosis, prolapse of rectum and uterus. The dosgae is 3-9g. it is used with caution for pregant women.

枳实为芸香科植物酸橙Citrus aurantium L.及其栽培变种或甜橙 C.sinensis Osbeck的干燥幼果,主产于四川、江西、福建、江苏等地。5~6月间采集自落的果实,自中部横切为两半,晒干或低温干燥,较小者直接晒干或低温干燥。用时洗净、闷透,切薄片,干燥。生用或麸炒用。

【药性】苦、辛、酸,温。归脾、胃、大肠经。        【功效】破气除痞,化痰消积。       
 
【应用】        1.胃肠积滞,湿热泻痢。本品辛行苦降,善破气除痞、消积导滞。治饮食积滞,脘腹痞满胀痛,常与山楂、麦芽、神曲等同用,如曲麦枳术丸(《医学正传》);若胃肠积滞,热结便秘,腹满胀痛,则与大黄、芒硝、厚朴等同用,如大承气汤(《伤寒论》);治湿热泻痢、里急后重,多与黄芩、黄连同用,如枳实导滞丸(《内外伤辨惑论》)。       
 
2.胸痹、结胸。本品能行气化痰以消痞,破气除满而止痛。治胸阳不振、痰阻胸痹之胸中满闷、疼痛,多与薤白、桂枝、瓜蒌等同用,如枳实薤白桂枝汤(《金匮要略》);治痰热结胸,可与黄连、瓜蒌、半夏同用,如小陷胸加枳实汤(《温病条辨》);治心下痞满,食欲不振,可与半夏曲、厚朴等同用,如枳实消痞丸(《兰室秘藏》)。       
 
3.气滞胸胁疼痛。本品善破气行滞而止痛,治疗气血阻滞之胸胁疼痛,可与川芎配伍,如枳芎散(《济生方》);若属寒凝气滞,可配桂枝,如桂枳散(《普济本事方》)。        4.产后腹痛。本品行气以助活血而止痛,可与芍药等分为末服用,用治产后瘀滞腹痛、烦躁,如枳实芍药散(《金匮要略》),或与当归、益母草同用。       
 
 此外,本品尚可用治胃扩张、胃下垂、子宫脱垂、脱肛等脏器下垂病症,可单用本品,或配伍补中益气之品黄芪、白术等以增强疗效。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,3~9g,大量可用至30g。炒后性较平和。        【使用注意】孕妇慎用。       
 
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主大风在皮肤中如麻豆苦痒,除寒热结,止痢,长肌肉,利五脏,益气轻身。”       
 
 2.《名医别录》:“除胸胁痰癖,逐停水,破结实,消胀满,心下急痞痛,逆气,胁风痛,安胃气,止溏泄,明目。”       
 
3.《本草纲目》:“枳实、枳壳大抵其功皆能利气,气下则痰喘止,气行则痰满消,气通则痛刺止,气利则后重除。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:酸橙果皮含挥发油、黄酮苷(主要为橙皮苷、新橙皮苷、柚皮苷、野漆树苷及忍冬苷等)、N-甲基酪胺、对羟福林、去甲肾上腺素、色胺诺林等。另外,尚含脂肪、蛋白质、碳水化合物、胡萝卜素、核黄素、钙、磷、铁等。       
 
2.药理作用:枳实能缓解乙酰胆碱或氯化钡所致的小肠痉挛,可使胃肠收缩节律增加;枳实能使胆囊收缩、奥狄氏括约肌张力增加;枳实、枳壳有抑制血栓形成的作用;枳实与枳壳具有抗溃疡作用;枳实或枳壳煎剂对已孕、未孕小白鼠离体子宫有抑制作用,对已孕、未孕家兔离体、在位子宫均呈兴奋作用;枳实、枳壳煎剂或酊剂静脉注射对动物离体心脏有强心作用,枳实注射液静脉注射能增加冠脉、脑、肾血流量,降低脑、肾血管阻力,枳实煎剂及枳壳的乙醇提取液给麻醉犬、兔静脉注射有明显的升高血压作用。       
 
 3.临床研究:以枳实通降汤(枳实、代赭石、蒲公英、白术、党参等)加减,每日1剂,治疗胆汁返流性胃炎,总有效率97.62%(中西医结合杂志,1991,10:637);枳实理中汤加味(枳实、白术、党参、干姜、甘草等)水煎服,治疗胃下垂40例,总有效率为90%(吉林中医药2000,4:25);以乌梅枳实散(两药各100g)研为细末,每天服2次,每次5~8g,治疗子宫脱垂有良效(河南中医,1987,5:45);以枳实30g,葶苈子30~50g,大枣15枚,水煎每日1剂,治疗心力衰竭50例次,总有效率为96%(中医杂志,1989,2:50)。另有用枳实为主治疗功能性消化不良、冠心病心绞痛,以枳实注射液治疗多种原因引起的休克等。       
 
附药 枳壳        为芸香科植物酸橙及其栽培变种的接近成熟的果实(去瓤),生用或麸炒用。性味、归经、功用与枳实同,但作用较缓和,长于行气开胸,宽中除胀。用法用量同枳实,孕妇慎用。       

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