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Zhizi ( Cape-jasmine Fruit )---栀子

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Product Description

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Zhizi is the ripened fruit of Gardenia Jasminoides Ellis, pertaining to Rubiaceae. It is collected from September to November when fruit ripens with red yellow color. After fruit stalk and impurities are removed, it is mild steamed or scalded, and then dried. The raw form is used, or after stir-baked to brown as well asstir-baked to charcoal.

[ Medicinal Properties ]: Bitter and cold; relate to heart, lung and triple energizer meridians.

[ Usage and Dosage ]: 5-10 g. Also it can be used externally.

[ Medicinal Efficacies ]: Purge fire, relieve agitation ; clear fire, drain dampness, cool blood and relieve toxicity.

[ Precautions ]: Be cautious with loose stool due to spleen insufficiency.
 
[Clinical Applications ]: 1. Warm disease and agitation    Zhizi is the most significant medicinal to treat agitation and uneasiness in warm disease, usually in combination with dandouchi; for example in Zhizichi Decoction. For prosperous fire toxin of warm disease and fever in triple energizers, with symptoms as high fever, agitation, coma and delirium, it is usually in combination with Huangqin, Huanglian, Huangbo; for example in Huanglian Jiedu Decoction.
 
2.Damp-heat and jaundice    It is indicated for accumulation of damp-heat in liver and gallbladder, manifesting as jaundice, fever, scanty and reddish urine, usually in combination with Yinchen and Dahuang; for example in Yinchenhao Decoction.
 
3. Blood stranguria and astringent pain    In case of blood stranguria with astringent pain or heat stranguria, it is usually combined with Mutong, Cheqianzi, Huashi; for example in Bazheng Powder.
 
4.Blood heat, hematemesis and epistaxis    For hematemesis and epistaxis due to blood heat, it is usually in combination with Baimaogen, dahuang, Cebaiye; for example in Shihui Powder.
 
5. Swollen and reddish eyes with pain, fire toxin, sores and ulcers      It treats swollen and reddish eyes with pain due to up-stirrig fire of liver and gallbladder, usually combined with Dahuang. Also it can treat sores and ulcers due to fire toxin with symptoms of reddish swelling with pain, usually combined with Jinyinghua, Lianqiao and Pugongying.

栀子为茜草科植物栀子Gardenia jasminoides Ellis的干燥成熟果实。产于长江以南各省。9—11月果实成熟显红黄色时采收。生用、炒焦或炒炭用。
      
【药性】苦,寒。归心、肺、三焦经。       
 
【功效】泻火除烦,清热利湿,凉血解毒。焦栀子:凉血止血。       
 
【应用】        1.热病心烦。本品苦寒清降,能清泻三焦火邪、泻心火而除烦,为治热病心烦、躁扰不宁之要药,可与淡豆豉同用,如栀子豉汤(《伤寒论》);若配黄芩、黄连、黄柏等,可用治热病火毒炽盛,三焦俱热而见高热烦躁、神昏谵语者,如黄连解毒汤(《外台秘要》)。       
 
2.湿热黄疸。本品有清利下焦肝胆湿热之功效,可用治肝胆湿热郁蒸之黄疸、小便短赤者,常配茵陈、大黄等药用,如茵陈蒿汤(《伤寒论》),或配黄柏用,如栀子柏皮汤(《金匮要略》)。       
 3.血淋涩痛。本品善清利下焦湿热而通淋,清热凉血以止血,故可治血淋涩痛或热淋证,常配木通、车前子、滑石等药用,如八正散(《和剂局方》)。       
 
4.血热吐衄。本品功能清热凉血,可用治血热妄行之吐血、衄血等证,常配白茅根、大黄、侧柏叶等药用,如十灰散(《十药神书》);本品若配黄芩、黄连、黄柏用,可治三焦火盛迫血妄行之吐血、衄血,如黄连解毒汤(《外台秘要》)。       
 
 5.目赤肿痛。本品清泻三焦热邪,可治肝胆火热上攻之目赤肿痛,常配大黄用,如栀子汤(《圣济总录》)。       
 
 6.火毒疮疡。本品功能清热泻火、凉血解毒,可用治火毒疮疡、红肿热痛者,常配金银花、连翘、蒲公英用;或配白芷以助消肿,如缩毒散(《普济方》)。       
 
 焦栀子功专凉血止血,用于血热吐血、衄血、尿血、崩漏。       
 
【用法用量】煎服,5—10克。外用生品适量,研末调敷。       
 
【使用注意】本品苦寒伤胃,脾虚便溏者不宜用。       
 
【鉴别用药】栀子入药,除果实全体入药外,还有果皮、种子分开用者。栀子皮(果皮)偏于达表而去肌肤之热;栀子仁(种子)偏于走里而清内热。生栀子走气分而泻火,焦栀子入血分而止血。       
【古籍摘要】        1.《神农本草经》:“主五内邪气,胃中热气,面赤酒疱齄鼻,白癞赤癞疮疡。”       
2.《本草正》:“栀子,若用佐使,治有不同:加茵陈除湿热黄疸,加豆豉除心火烦躁,加厚朴、枳实可除烦满,加生姜、陈皮可除呕秽,同元胡破热滞瘀血腹痛。”       
 
【现代研究】        1.化学成分:本品含异栀子苷、去羟栀子苷、栀子酮苷、山栀子苷、京尼平苷酸及黄酮类栀子素、三萜类化合物藏红花素和藏红花酸、熊果酸等。       
2.药理作用:栀子提取物对结扎总胆管动物的GOT升高有明显的降低作用;栀子及其所含环烯醚萜有利胆作用;其提取物及藏红花苷、藏红花酸、格尼泊素等可使胆汁分泌量增加;栀子及其提取物有利胰及降胰酶作用,京尼平苷降低胰淀粉酶的作用最显著;栀子煎剂及醇提取物有降压作用,其所含成分藏红花酸有减少动脉硬化发生率的作用;栀子的醇提取物有镇静作用;本品对金黄色葡萄球菌、脑膜炎双球菌、卡他球菌等有抑制作用;其水浸液在体外对多种皮肤真菌有抑制作用。       
3.临床研究:用栀子研为细末,鸡蛋清、面粉、白酒适量,共调成糊状,贴扭伤部位,治疗闭合性软组织损伤300例,经1次治疗痊愈者298例(四川中医,1988,2:44);用栀子40—60g,煎汤顿服,治疗羊踯躅中毒3例,均获痊愈(四川中医,1983,4:56);用由栀子、柴胡、大黄、败酱草、丹参等药组成的柴栀通瘀汤治疗急性水肿型胰腺炎37例,取得满意疗效〔南京中医药大学学报(自然科学版),2001,1:59)〕。       

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